2019 European Parliament election

Election to the European Parliament

2019 European Parliament election

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All 751 seats to the European Parliament
376 seats needed for a majority
Turnout50.66%[2] Increase 8.01 pp
 
(Manfred Weber) EPP Summit, 19 October 2017 (37534170170) (cropped).jpg
2018 PES Congres (46352554571).jpg
Debate of lead candidates for the European Commission presidency (32917075457).jpg
Leader Manfred Weber Frans Timmermans Margrethe Vestager
Alliance EPP S&D RE
Leader's seat Germany Netherlands Denmark
Last election 221 seats, 23.8% 191 seats, 24.4% 67 seats, 7.0%
Seats before 216 185 69
Seats won 187 147 98
Seat change Decrease 34 Decrease 31 Increase 39
Popular vote 41,211,023 35,421,084 23,788,652
Percentage 21.0% 18.5% 13.0%
Swing Decrease 2.8% Decrease 5.9% Increase 6.0%

 
Speech of the Lead Candidates (47941849351).jpg
2019-07-08-Ska Keller in 2019-hart aber fair-6482.jpg
Marco Zanni 2019.jpg
Debate of lead candidates for the European Commission presidency (32917075397).jpg
Leader Bas Eickhout
Ska Keller
Marco Zanni Jan Zahradil
Alliance Greens/EFA ID ECR
Leader's seat Netherlands
Germany
North-West Italy Czech Republic
Last election 50 seats, 7.3% New group 70 seats, 5.2%
Seats before 52 36 77
Seats won 67 76 62
Seat change Increase 22 Increase 37 Decrease 15
Popular vote 19,886,513 20,980,853 14,207,477
Percentage 11.7% 10.8% 8.2%
Swing Increase 4.4% New group Increase 3.0%

 
Po poteh razprodaj 17.JPG
Debate of lead candidates for the European Commission presidency (40894701933).jpg
Leader Violeta Tomić
(not elected)
Nico Cué
(not elected)
Alliance GUE/NGL
Leader's seat Slovenia
Belgium (French)
Last election 52 seats, 5.6%
Seats before 52
Seats won 39
Seat change Decrease 11
Popular vote 10,219,537
Percentage 6.5%
Swing Increase 0.9%

The leading parliamentary group in Malta, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain is S&D; in UK it is EFDD; in Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands it is ALDE; in France and Italy it is ENF; in Poland it is ECR; and in the other 14 it is EPP.
Map of Europe showing the European parliamentary group leading in each constituency. In constituencies where some groups have had the same number of seats, the groups with the most seats are displayed with hashing.

  EPP   S&D   RE   G/EFA   ID   ECR   GUE/NGL

  NI

President of the European Commission before election

Jean-Claude Juncker
EPP

President of the European Commission after election

Ursula von der Leyen
EPP

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The 2019 European Parliament election was held between 23 and 26 May 2019, the ninth parliamentary election since the first direct elections in 1979. A total of 751 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) represent more than 512 million people from 28 member states. In February 2018, the European Parliament had voted to decrease the number of MEPs from 751 to 705 if the United Kingdom were to withdraw from the European Union on 29 March 2019.[3] However, the United Kingdom participated alongside other EU member states after an extension of Article 50 to 31 October 2019; therefore, the allocation of seats between the member states and the total number of seats remained as it had been in 2014.[4] The Ninth European Parliament had its first plenary session on 2 July 2019.[5]

On 26 May 2019, the European People's Party led by Manfred Weber won the most seats in the European Parliament, making Weber the leading candidate to become the next President of the European Commission.[6][7] Despite this, the European Council decided after the election to nominate Ursula von der Leyen as new Commission President. The centre-left and centre-right parties suffered significant losses, while pro-EU centrist, liberal and environmentalist parties and anti-EU right-wing populist parties made substantial gains.[8][9]

New law

On 7 June 2018, the Council agreed at ambassador level to change the EU electoral law and to reform old laws from the 1976 Electoral Act. The purpose of the reform is to increase participation in elections, raise understanding of their European character and prevent irregular voting while at the same time respecting the constitutional and electoral traditions of the member states.[10] The reform forbids double voting and voting in third countries, thus improving the visibility of European political parties.[10] To avoid double voting, contact authorities are established to exchange data on voters, a process that has to start at least six weeks before the elections.[10]

The European Parliament gave its consent on 4 July 2018 and the Act was adopted by the Council on 13 July 2018. However, not all member states ratified the Act prior to the 2019 elections and therefore this election took place in line with the previous rules.[11][12]

Political groups and candidates

The Spitzenkandidat process involves the nomination by European political parties of candidates for the role of Commission President, the party winning the most seats in the European Parliament receiving the first opportunity to attempt to form a majority to back their candidate (akin to how heads of government are elected in national parliamentary democracies). This process was first used in 2014 and was opposed by some in the European Council. The future of the process is uncertain, but the European Parliament has attempted to codify the process and the parties are almost certain to select the candidates again.[13] On 23 January 2018, the Constitutional Affairs Committee adopted a text stating that the Spitzenkandidat process could not be overturned, and that Parliament "will be ready to reject any candidate in the investiture procedure of the Commission President who was not appointed as a Spitzenkandidat in the run-up to the European elections".[14]

In May 2018 a Eurobarometer poll suggested that 49% of the 27,601 individuals from all 28 EU countries surveyed think that the Spitzenkandidat process will help them vote in the next European elections while 70% also think that the process requires a real debate on European issues.[15]

European People's Party

Incumbent Jean-Claude Juncker stated he would not seek a second term as President of the European Commission.[16]

Two candidates sought the nomination of the EPP:

At their 2018 Congress in Helsinki, the EPP elected Manfred Weber as their Spitzenkandidat for President of the European Commission.[19]

Party of European Socialists

Previous candidate Martin Schulz left the European Parliament in 2017 to head the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but he stepped down from the latter position in 2018.

Two candidates were nominated by PES member parties and organisations:

  • Maroš Šefčovič (Vice-President of the Commission) announced in September his bid to head the Commission.[20]
  • Frans Timmermans (first Vice-President of the Commission, previous Dutch Foreign Affairs Minister) announced in October his bid to head Commission.[21]

Šefčovič announced his withdrawal in November and supported Frans Timmermans as the Common Candidate.[22]

The party convened an extraordinary Congress in Lisbon to ratify the election of the candidate and to vote upon the manifesto.

European Conservatives and Reformists

Jan Zahradil, an MEP for the Czech Civic Democratic Party, is the Spitzenkandidat of the European Conservatives and Reformists.

European Green Party

As in 2014, the Greens adopted the principle of having two leading candidates for the European Elections 2019.[23] Unlike in 2014, where the candidates were chosen through an open online primary elections, the two leading candidates were elected by the Council of the Party in Berlin in November 2018.[24] Four people, two of them being currently MEPs, have declared their candidacy:[24]

At their 2018 Congress in Berlin, the party elected Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout as their Spitzenkandidaten for the President of the European Commission.

European Free Alliance

Oriol Junqueras, a Catalan historian, academic and former Vice President of Catalonia who, at the time of the election, was imprisoned because of his involvement in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum, is the Spitzenkandidat of the European Free Alliance.[25][26]

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats

Rather than present a single candidate, the ALDE group presented a Team Europe of seven people as the alliance's leading candidates:[27]

  • Guy Verhofstadt (President of the ALDE group, MEP and former Prime Minister of Belgium)
  • Nicola Beer (General Secretary and lead candidate of the Free Democratic Party in Germany)
  • Margrethe Vestager (Commissioner for Competition, previous Danish Minister for Economy and Interior).[28][29][30]
  • Luis Garicano (chief economist for Ciudadanos in Spain)
  • Emma Bonino (Former European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Protection, former Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs)
  • Violeta Bulc (Commissioner for Transport, former Deputy Prime Minister of Slovenia)
  • Katalin Cseh (founder of Hungary's Momentum Movement)

Party of the European Left

The designated candidates are Violeta Tomič from Slovenia and Belgian trade-unionist Nico Cué.[31]

Populist and Eurosceptic groups

The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy was widely expected to disband after the election. One reason was that its biggest share of MEPs came from the United Kingdom, which was long expected to leave the EU before the election. The second was that the second-biggest partner, Italy's Five Star Movement (M5S), felt uneasy about this alliance anyway, having unsuccessfully tried to join the Greens/EFA or ALDE group instead. In February 2019, M5S alongside partners from Croatia, Finland, Greece and Poland presented a new alliance of anti-establishment parties that claim to be neither left nor right.[32]

The Movement is an alliance of populist parties set up by Steve Bannon in 2018 with the purpose of contesting the European elections. Participating parties included, at least temporarily, Lega Nord, People's Party of Belgium and Brothers of Italy and possibly French National Rally. Originally envisioned as an attempt to unite the populist parties in Europe, The Movement has so far been snubbed by the Alternative for Germany,[33] the Freedom Party of Austria[34] and the UK Independence Party.[35] In March 2019, reporters assessed Bannon's project as a failure.[36][37] Shortly ahead of the election, Marine Le Pen of the French National Rally distanced herself from Bannon, clarifying that he played no role in her party's campaign.[38]

In April 2019, Matteo Salvini of Italy's Lega launched the European Alliance of Peoples and Nations as a new coalition of populist, hard Eurosceptic and anti-immigration parties. It has been joined by most of the members of the outgoing Europe of Nations and Freedom group (including Lega, the French National Rally, Freedom Party of Austria and the Dutch Party for Freedom) as well as some former EFDD (Alternative for Germany) and ECR parties (Danish People's Party and Finns Party). It has been predicted to become the fourth largest group in parliament with an estimate of more than 80 MEPs.[39]

New parties

2019 saw the debut of new parties such as Wiosna of Poland, Czech Pirate Party of Czech Republic, USR-PLUS of Romania, Human Shield and Most of Croatia, ĽSNS and Progressive Slovakia of Slovakia. Some of the new parties have already joined European parties, e.g. LMŠ of Slovenia is a member of ALDE.

The biggest new party is La République En Marche! (LREM) of French President Emmanuel Macron that was formed in 2016 and won the French presidential and parliamentary elections of the following year. Initially, it balked at joining any of the existing party families, instead trying to form a new parliamentary group of pro-European centrists who support Macron's plans to reform the European institutions, drawing away members from ALDE, EPP and S&D.[40][41] Possible partners for such a project were expected to include Spanish Ciudadanos, Progressive Slovakia and the Hungarian Momentum Movement.[40] However, the hypothetical group was considered to have difficulties to find MEPs from at least seven member states as is required to form a new group.[40] In November 2018, LREM decided to cooperate with the liberal ALDE group instead. Nevertheless, Macron stressed that this was merely a loose alliance and his party is not a member of the ALDE Europarty. He bluntly criticised ALDE for accepting donations from the Bayer-Monsanto chemical group while LREM's campaign chief threatened to recall the alliance.[42] In April and May 2019, LREM continued its efforts to build a broader group, including ALDE, but also centrist and centre-left parties outside of ALDE.[43][44]

The new Brexit Party won 29 seats in the United Kingdom.[45]

The European Spring initiated from the Democracy in Europe Movement 2025 ran as a pan-European party alliance with one unified vision for Europe, the European Green New Deal.[46] The most prominent figure is the former Greek minister Yanis Varoufakis, who ran as a candidate in the constituency of Germany, but failed to secure a seat.[47] Despite garnering approximately one and a half million votes, no representatives who ran DiEM25 were elected, due to the votes being dispersed throughout different EU countries.[48]

As a new pan-European party, Volt Europa was founded in different European countries two years before the elections and successfully campaigned in eight EU countries for the elections with one transnational programme.[49] Despite missing its own goal to create a parliamentary group on its own, approximately half a million votes in total were sufficient to send one of the founders, Damian Boeselager, into the European Parliament via a German Volt list.[50] Since June 2019, Volt is part of the group of the Greens/EFA.[51]

Televised debates

The candidates standing onstage
European Commission presidency candidates at Eurovision Debate (May 2019). Left to right: Zahradil, Cué, Keller, Vestager, Timmermans, Weber
Table of televised debates
Date Time (CEST) Institute Participants Location Language Main presenter(s)
17 April 2019 21:00 France 24 and RFI[52] Timmermans and Weber Strasbourg French Caroline de Camaret (France 24) and Dominique Baillard (RFI)
17 April 2019 22:00 France 24[53][54] Timmermans and Weber Strasbourg English Catherine Nicholson (France 24)
29 April 2019 19:00 Politico Europe[55] Eickhout, Timmermans, Tomić, Verhofstadt and Zahradil Maastricht English Ryan Heath (Politico Europe) and Rianne Letschert (Maastricht University)
2 May 2019 18:00 Financial Times[56] Keller, Timmermans, Verhofstadt and Weber Florence English Martin Sandbu (Financial Times)
7 May 2019 20:15 ARD[57] Timmermans and Weber Cologne German Ellen Ehni and Andreas Cichowicz (both ARD)
15 May 2019 21:00 EBU[58] Cué, Keller, Timmermans, Vestager, Weber, and Zahradil Brussels English Émilie Tran Nguyen (France Television), Markus Preiss (ARD Germany), and Annastiina Heikkilä (YLE Finland)
16 May 2019 20:15 ZDF and ORF[59] Timmermans and Weber Berlin German Peter Frey (ZDF) and Ingrid Thurnher (ORF)
21 May 2019 22:00 NOS and NTR[60] Timmermans and Weber Hilversum German and Dutch Jeroen Wollaars (NOS)

Results

Groups

Results by political group[61]
Group (2019–24) Votes Seats
Votes % Seats %
EPP European People's Party group 41,211,023[a] 20.80
182 / 751
Decrease −34 24.23
S&D Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats 35,421,084 17.88
154 / 751
Decrease −31 20.51
RE Renew Europe[b] 23,788,652[c] 12.01
108 / 751
Increase +39 14.38
G/EFA Greens–European Free Alliance 19,886,513[d] 10.04
74 / 751
Increase +22 9.85
ID Identity and Democracy[e] 20,980,853 10.59
73 / 751
Increase +37 9.72
ECR European Conservatives and Reformists 14,207,477 7.17
62 / 751
Decrease −15 8.26
GUE/NGL European United Left–Nordic Green Left 10,219,537[f] 5.16
41 / 751
Decrease −11 5.46
NI Non-Inscrits 12,923,417 6.52
57 / 751
Increase +37 7.59
All others 19,453,922 9.82
0 / 751
N/A 0.00
Total 198,352,638 100.00 751 Steady 100.00
Vote totals given account only for lists which won seats and joined the corresponding group or sat as non-inscrits.
Votes summary
EPP
20.80%
S&D
17.88%
RE
12.01%
ID
10.59%
G/EFA
10.04%
ECR
7.17%
GUE/NGL
5.16%
NI
6.52%
Other
9.82%

By country

Seats summary
EPP
24.23%
S&D
20.51%
RE
14.38%
G/EFA
9.85%
ID
9.72%
ECR
8.26%
GUE/NGL
5.46%
NI
7.59%
State Political groups MEPs
EPP
(EPP, ECPM)
S&D
(PES, EDP)
RE
(ALDE, EDP)
G/EFA
(EGP, EFA)
ID
(IDP)
ECR
(ECRP, ECPM, EFA)
GUE/NGL
(PEL)
NI
Germany
Germany
23 (CDU)
6 (CSU)
−5
+1
16 (SPD) −11 5 (FDP)
2 (FW)
+2
+1
21 (B’90/Grüne)
1 (ÖDP)
1 (Piraten)
1 (Volt Europa)
1 (PARTEI)
+10
=
=
+1
+1
11 (AfD) +4 1 (Familie) = 5 (Linke)
1 (Tierschutz)
−2
=
1 (PARTEI) = 96
France
France
8 (LR-LC) −12 5 (PS-PP-ND) −8 21 (LREM-MoDem-Agir–MR) +21 12 (EELV) +6 22 (RN) −2 6 (FI) +6 74
United Kingdom
United
Kingdom
10 (LAB) −10 16 (LD)
1 (Alliance)
+15
+1
7 (GPEW)
3 (SNP)
1 (PC)
+4
+1
=
4 (CON) −15 1 (SF) = 29 (Brexit Party)
1 (DUP)
+29

=

73
Italy
Italy
6 (FI)
1 (SVP)
−7
=
19 (PD) −12 28 (Lega) +23 5 (FdI) +5 14 (M5S) −3 73
Spain
Spain
12 (PP) −4 20 (PSOE) +6 7 (Cs)
1 (CEUS/EAJ/PNV)
+1
=
1 (AR-ERC)
1 (UP)
-1
=
3 (VOX) +3 5 (UP)
1 (AR-EH Bildu)
−5
=
2 (JuntsxCat)
1 (AR-ERC)
+2
+1
54
Poland
Poland
22 (KE) - 5 3 (Wiosna) +3 26 (PiS-SP) +7 51
Romania
Romania
10 (PNL)
2 (UDMR)
2 (PMP)
−1
=
=
8 (PSD)
2 (PRO)
−8
+2
8 (USR-PLUS) +8 32
Netherlands
Netherlands
4 (CDA)
1 (50+)
1 (CU)
−1
+1
+1
6 (PvdA) +3 2 (D66)
4 (VVD)
−2
+1
3 (GL) +1 3 (FvD)
1 (SGP)
+3
=
1 (PvdD) = 26
Belgium
Belgium
2 (CD&V)
1 (CDH)
1 (CSP)
=
=
=
2 (PS)
1 (SP.A)
−1
=
2 (Open VLD)
2 (MR)
−1
−1
2 (ECOLO)
1 (Groen)
+1
=
3 (VB) +2 3 (N-VA) −1 1 (PTB) +1 21
Czech Republic
Czech
Republic
2+1 (TOP 09+STAN)
2 (KDU–ČSL)
−1
−1
6 (ANO) +2 3 (Piráti) +3 2 (SPD) +2 4 (ODS) +2 1 (KSČM) −2 21
Greece
Greece
8 (ND) +3 2 (KINAL) = 1 (EL)[62] +1 6 (SYRIZA) = 2 (KKE)
2 (XA)
=
−1
21
Hungary
Hungary
12+1 (Fidesz+KDNP) +1 1 (MSZP)
4 (DK)
−1
+2
2 (MoMo) +2 1 (Jobbik) −2 21
Portugal
Portugal
6 (PSD)
1 (CDS–PP)
=
=
9 (PS) +1 1 (PAN) +1 2 (CDU: PCP)
2 (BE)
−1
+1
21
Sweden
Sweden
4 (M)
2 (KD)
+1
+1
5 (S) = 2 (C)
1 (L)
+1
−1
2 (MP) −2 3 (SD) +1 1 (V) = 20
Austria
Austria
7 (ÖVP) +2 5 (SPÖ) = 1 (NEOS) = 2 (Grüne) −1 3 (FPÖ) −1 18
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
6 (GERB)
1 (DSB)
=
+1
5 (BSP) +1 3 (DPS) −1 2 (IMRO) +1 17
Finland
Finland
3 (Kok.) = 2 (SDP) = 2 (Kesk.)
1 (SFP)
−1
=
2 (VIHR) +1 2 (PS) = 1 (Vas.) = 13
Denmark
Denmark
1 (C) = 3 (S) = 3 (V)
2 (B)
+1
+1
2 (SF) +1 1 (O) −3 1 (RG) +1 13
Slovakia
Slovakia
2 (SPOLU)
1 (KDH)
1 (OĽaNO)
+2
−1
=
3 (Smer–SD) −1 2 (PS) +2 2 (SaS) +1 2 (ĽSNS) +2 13
Croatia
Croatia
4 (HDZ) −1 3 (SDP) +1 1 (AMS/IDS) −1 1 (HKS) = 1 (Human Shield)
1 (Kolakušić)
+1
+1
11
Republic of Ireland
Ireland
4 (FG) = 1 (FF) = 2 (GP) +2 2 (I4C)
1 (SF)
1 (Flanagan)
+2
−2
=
11
Lithuania
Lithuania
3 (TS–LKD)
1 (Maldeikienė)
+1
+1
2 (LSDP) = 1 (DP)
1 (LRLS)
=
−1
2 (LVŽS) +1 1 (LLRA) = 11
Latvia
Latvia
2 (JV) −2 2 (Saskaņa) +1 1 (AP!) +1 1 (LKS) = 2 (NA) +1 8
Slovenia
Slovenia
2+1 (SDS+SLS)
1 (NSi)
−1
=
2 (SD) +1 2 (LMS) +2 8
Cyprus
Cyprus
2 (DISY) = 1 (EDEK)
1 (DIKO)
=
=
2 (AKEL) = 6
Estonia
Estonia
2 (SDE) +1 2 (RE)
1 (KE)
=
=
1 (EKRE) +1 6
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
2 (CSV) −1 1 (LSAP) = 2 (DP) +1 1 (Gréng) = 6
Malta
Malta
2 (PN) −1 4 (PL) +1 6
Total MEPs
EPP S&D RE G/EFA ID ECR GUE/NGL NI
182 (24.2%) −39 154 (20.5%) −37 108 (14.4%) +41 74 (9.9%) +24 73 (9.7%) +26 62 (8.3%) −8 41 (5.5%) −11 57 (7.6%) +5 751

Post-Brexit seats

In June 2018, the European Council decided to reapportion 27 of the 73 seats which would become vacant in the event of the United Kingdom leaving the EU. As the United Kingdom was still a member of the EU at the time of the election, the elections were held with the same allocation of seats as in 2014. When the United Kingdom left the EU, 27 of the seats were reallocated to other EU member states as shown below, resulting in a total of 705 MEPs.[63]

State Seats before Seats after Change
 Austria 18 19 Increase 1
 Belgium 21 21 Steady 0
 Bulgaria 17 17 Steady 0
 Croatia 11 12 Increase 1
 Cyprus 6 6 Steady 0
 Czech Republic 21 21 Steady 0
 Denmark 13 14 Increase 1
 Estonia 6 7 Increase 1
 Finland 13 14 Increase 1
 France 74 79 Increase 5
 Germany 96 96 Steady 0
 Greece 21 21 Steady 0
 Hungary 21 21 Steady 0
 Ireland 11 13 Increase 2
 Italy 73 76 Increase 3
 Latvia 8 8 Steady 0
 Lithuania 11 11 Steady 0
 Luxembourg 6 6 Steady 0
 Malta 6 6 Steady 0
 Netherlands 26 29 Increase 3
 Poland 51 52 Increase 1
 Portugal 21 21 Steady 0
 Romania 32 33 Increase 1
 Slovakia 13 14 Increase 1
 Slovenia 8 8 Steady 0
 Spain 54 59 Increase 5
 Sweden 20 21 Increase 1
 United Kingdom 73 0 Decrease 73
Total 751 705 Decrease 46

Changes in group representation

The table below shows the changes in group composition after the United Kingdom left the EU.

Member state Political groups MEPs
EPP S&D RE G/EFA ID ECR GUE/NGL NI
Austria Austria +1 (Grüne) +1
Croatia Croatia +1 (SDP) +1
Denmark Denmark +1 (V) +1
Estonia Estonia +1 (PP) +1
Finland Finland +1 (VIHR) +1
France France +1 (PS) +1 (LREM)
+1 (PD)
+1 (EELV) +1 (RN) +5
Republic of Ireland Ireland +1 (FG) +1 (FF) +2
Italy Italy +1 (FI) +1 (LN) +1 (FdI) +3
Netherlands Netherlands +1 (VVD) +1 (PVV)[g] +1 (FvD) +3
Poland Poland +1 (PiS) +1
Romania Romania +1 (PSD) +1
Slovakia Slovakia +1 (KDH) +1
Spain Spain +1 (PP) +1 (PSOE) +1 (Cs) +1 (VOX) +1 (JuntsxCat) +5
Sweden Sweden +1 (MP) +1
United Kingdom United
Kingdom
−10 (Lab) −16 (LibDem)
−1 (APNI)
−7 (Green)
−3 (SNP)
−1 (PC)
−4 (Con) −1 (SF) −29 (Brexit Party)
−1 (DUP)
−73
Change +5 −6 −11 −7 +3 0 −1 −29 −46
  1. ^
    • 5,249,935 votes for European Coalition (Poland), which comprised parties which joined the EPP and S&D groups, have been counted for the EPP group.
    • 375,660 votes for Christian Union – Reformed Political Party (Netherlands), which comprised parties which joined the EPP and ECR groups, have been counted for the EPP group.
  2. ^ Renew Europe replaced the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group (ALDE) from the 2014−2019 Parliament.
  3. ^ 198,255 votes for PSSPOLU (Slovakia), which comprised parties which joined the RE and EPP groups, have been counted for the RE group.
  4. ^ 1,252,139 votes for Ahora Repúblicas (Spain), which comprised parties which joined the G/EFA and GUE/NGL groups (plus one non-inscrit), have been counted for the G/EFA group.
  5. ^ Identity and Democracy largely replaced the Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF) group from the 2014−2019 Parliament.
  6. ^ 2,258,857 votes for Unidas Podemos Cambiar Europa (Spain), which comprised parties which joined the GUE/NGL and G/EFA groups, have been counted for the GUE/NGL group.
  7. ^ Geert Wilders, leader of the PVV, announced that the party would join the ID group.

Seat projections

There were no pan-European polls for the European elections. However, several organisations calculated the theoretical seat distribution in the European Parliament based on national polls in all member states. The table below displays these different projections. Since the United Kingdom notified its intention to leave the European Union in March 2017, the United Kingdom was expected not to participate in the European elections and was therefore excluded from projections. On 10 April 2019, the European Council extended the Brexit deadline to 31 October 2019, and the UK did participate in the European elections.[64] The UK was included in most projections after that date.

Opinion polls by number of seats
Institute Date EPP S&D RE Greens/EFA ID ECR GUE/NGL EFDD NI Far-right (NI) Far-left (NI) Moderate (NI)
Election result[65] 2019-05-26 182 154 108 74 73 62 41 44[a] 13


7 2 4
Europe Elects[66]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-05-21 172 151 110 54 82
(as EAPN)
60 52 52
(28 from Brexit)
13 5
(Pirates)
election.de[67]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-05-20 169
(no Fidesz)
155 99 57 84
(as EAPN)
82
(15 from Fidesz)
53 41
(as 5SDD with Brexit)
11
Europe Elects[66]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-05-14 178 153 104 55 82
(as EAPN)
61 51 48 13+5
EU19.EU[68]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-05-08 157 174 99 49 85 75 46 29 37
Europe Elects[66]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-05-07 180 158 101 51 84
(as EAPN)
61 50 45 12+9
election.de[69]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-05-05 175
(no Fidesz)
147 99 63 79
(as EAPN)
81
(13 from Fidesz)
53 22
(as 5SDD)
32
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[70]
(without United Kingdom)
2019-05-01 178 125 74
(no En Marche)
50 57 49 50 36 30 4 52
(24 from En Marche)
Europe Elects[66]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-04-30 180 159 102 51 82
(as EAPN)
61 49 12+55
Europe Elects[71]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-04-25 180 161 104 51 85
(as EAPN)
64 49 13+44
EU19.EU[72]
(without United Kingdom)
2019-04-23 181 145 107 49 75 58 45 25 20
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[73]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-04-16 177 148 73
(no En Marche)
57 63 58 48 40 35 3 49
(22 from En Marche)
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[73]
(without United Kingdom)
2019-04-16 185 132 67
(no En Marche)
50 57 47 51 27 39 3 47
(22 from En Marche)
Bidimedia[74]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-04-12 175 158 96 49 63 74 47 32 7+50
EU19.EU[75]
(with United Kingdom)
2019-04-12 176 171 98 49 74 76 46 27 34
Europe Elects[76] 2019-04-10 184 135 106 47 63 63 51 35 11+10
Europe Elects[77] 2019-04-10 184 135 106 47 84
(as EAPN)
63 51 24 11+10
EU19.EU[78] 2019-04-05 193 140 99 48 75 60 48 19
(only M5S)
23
European Parliament[79] 2019-03-29 188 142 72

(no En Marche)

51 61 43 49 30 37 22
(only En Marche)
EU19.EU[80] 2019-03-29 187 145 99 47 74 61 50 22
(only M5S)
20
EU19.EU[81] 2019-03-27 184 146 102 45 78 59 49 22
(only M5S)
20
Europe Elects[82] 2019-03-25 177 135 105 46 62 64 53 40 12+11
EU19.EU[83] 2019-03-21 180 135 102 50 81 67 48 23
(only M5S)
19
EU19.EU[84] 2019-03-18 181 135 101 50 82 65 48 24
(only M5S)
19
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[85] 2019-03-15 183 134 73
(no En Marche)
46 60 40 49 32 38 3 47
(21 from En Marche)
election.de[86] 2019-03-15 175
(no Fidesz)
132 98 57 62 59 53 61
(12 from Fidesz)
8
EU19.EU[87] 2019-03-14 178 143 101 47 83 58 51 24
(only M5S)
20
EU19.EU[88] 2019-03-06 186 142 94 48 81 60 49 25
(only M5S)
20
EU19.EU[89] 2019-03-04 185 141 94 47 83 59 52 25
(only M5S)
19
EU19.EU[90] 2019-03-01 182 138 97 47 83 59 53 26
(only M5S)
20
European Parliament[91] 2019-02 181 135 75 49 59 46 47 39 74
EU19.EU[92] 2019-02-26 173 144 99 50 82 59 51 26
(only M5S)
21
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[93] 2019-02-24 185 139 68
(no En Marche)
43 59 46 50 34 40 3 38
(21 from En Marche)
EU19.EU[94] 2019-02-21 170 141 104 48 84 62 50 23
(only M5S)
23
EU19.EU[95] 2019-02-20 168 143 106 48 83 63 49 24
(only M5S)
23
Eurobarometer[96] 2019-02-18 183 135 75
(no En Marche)
45 59 51 46 43 22+58
EU19.EU[97] 2019-02-16 167 143 104 47 85 63 47 25
(only M5S)
24
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[98] 2019-02-03 191 138 68
(no En Marche)
45 56 56 52 35 39 3 36
(21 from En Marche)
European Parliament[91] 2019-01 186 129 77 46 60 43 45 34 85
Europe Elects[99] ("United Right Scenario") 2019-01-30 191 129 98 47 132 56 12+40
Europe Elects[99] ("EFDD breaks apart scenario") 2019-01-30 177 129 98 47 77 93 56 12+16
Europe Elects[100] 2019-01-13 177 129 98 47 62 62 56 46 12+16
Der (europäische) Föderalist[101] 2019-01-08 181 130 90 49 63 58 57 14 11+52
European Parliament[91] 2018-12 185 131 78 42 62 45 49 46 67
Europe Elects[102] 2018-12-05 178 133 96 43 61 53 58 47 13+21
European Parliament[91] 2018-11 181 140 78 46 59 43 50 45 63
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[103] 2018-11-29 186 140 76
(no En Marche)
42 56 43 56 35 36 3 32
(18 from En Marche)
Europe Elects[104] 2018-11-11 172 136 98 45 61 54 60 48 10+21
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[105] 2018-10-28 186 136 77
(no En Marche)
40 53 42 58 38 38 3 34
(21 from En Marche)
Instituto Cattaneo[106] 2018-10-09 180 139 93 45 63 54 63 55 13
Europe Elects[107] 2018-10-09 177 134 98 40 61 50 61 50 9+25
Politico Europe[108] 2018-10-08 178 137 83
(21 En Marche)
40 59 48 58 53 6+33
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[109] 2018-09-22 182 139 76
(no En Marche)
36 52 46 61 40 36 3 33
(21 from En Marche)
Europe Elects[110] 2018-09-20 181 134 100 37 57 49 61 49 11+26
Der (europäische) Föderalist[111] 2018-09-19 178 140 95 42 59 50 60 21 10+50
EuropeanElectionsStats.eu[112] 2018-09-12 187 141 72
(no En Marche)
33 52 44 60 39 39 4 33
(21 from En Marche)
Europe Elects[113] 2018-08-10 179 137 104 36 55 50 60 49 10+25
Thomson Reuters[114] 2018-07-28 180 154 104 34 63 42 56 59 13
Der (europäische) Föderalist ("dynamic scenario")[115] 2018-07-25 177 145 56 (En Marche)
53 (ALDE)
38 78 90 58 10
Der (europäische) Föderalist ("baseline scenario")[115] 2018-07-25 177 145 102 38 56 50 57 22 10+48
www.thenewfederalist.eu/Europe Elects[116] 2018-07-06 185 141 110 34 52 44 58 49 9+23
Der (europäische) Föderalist ("dynamic scenario")[117] 2018-05-29 178 138 57 (En Marche)
50 (ALDE)
37 66 84 56 12
Der (europäische) Föderalist ("baseline scenario")[117] 2018-05-29 178 137 103 37 46 43 55 23 12+44
treffpunkteuropa.de/Europe Elects[118] 2018-05-18 179 141 112 32 47 42 61 58 12+21
treffpunkteuropa.de/Europe Elects[119] 2018-04-17 180 143 112 33 46 42 60 58 9+22
Der (europäische) Föderalist[120] 2018-04-03 180 137 104 33 44 41 58 23 12+46
Der (europäische) Föderalist[121] 2018-02-05 179 142 102 33 41 47 65 42 27
Der (europäische) Föderalist[122] 2017-12-13 196 142 109 30 36 45 56 37 27
Der (europäische) Föderalist[123] 2017-10-16 192 150 106 28 37 45 55 38 27
Der (europäische) Föderalist[124] 2017-08-21 196 149 108 24 44 42 57 29 29
Der (europäische) Föderalist[125] 2017-06-27 201 155 109 23 42 38 55 28 27
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2017-05-02 198 170 82 28 59 35 46 27 33
New allocation of seats without the United Kingdom approved
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2017-05-02 198 186 88 35 59 68 47 36 34
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[127] 2017-03-28 181 181 75 29 48 74 58 40 51
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2017-03-06 191 182 80 35 60 69 50 48 36
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[128] 2017-03-01 174 185 85 31 51 81 54 42 48
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2017-01-16 191 180 82 40 68 63 48 48 31
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[129] 2017-01-07 189 170 82 28 60 71 63 38 49
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[129] 2016-12-01 195 176 81 35 57 72 57 38 42
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2016-11-14 194 182 91 38 61 65 48 47 25
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[130] 2016-10-31 191 171 75 30 61 73 71 41 38
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[131] 2016-10-01 194 179 82 31 64 71 57 42 31
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2016-09-13 189 181 91 38 63 62 47 53 27
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[132] 2016-09-01 189 176 86 32 54 74 59 40 32
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[132] 2016-08-13 191 184 86 32 58 72 60 40 21
Der (europäische) Föderalist[133] 2016-07-28 192 185 90 39 61 59 48 54 13
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[134] 2016-07-13 202 187 92 31 58 67 57 36 21
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[135] 2016-06-23 183 179 88 32 61 74 61 46 27
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[136] 2016-06-01 186 177 83 35 45 76 59 63 27
Der (europäische) Föderalist[137] 2016-05-25 187 174 85 40 70 63 55 51 12
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[138] 2016-05-02 187 178 89 27 49 69 66 56 23
Der (europäische) Föderalist[139] 2016-04-07 192 179 85 37 53 72 52 50 31
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[140] 2016-04-02 205 177 87 30 48 84 58 37 25
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[141] 2016-03-01 186 183 99 27 48 81 65 37 25
Der (europäische) Föderalist[139] 2016-02-07 196 183 82 34 55 70 51 51 29
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[142] 2016-02-02 191 186 79 27 51 86 69 39 23
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[143] 2016-01-04 194 187 95 28 48 76 66 37 20
Der (europäische) Föderalist[144] 2015-12-14 192 185 87 33 53 68 52 52 29
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[145] 2015-12-02 197 186 82 33 47 91 61 37 17
thenewfederalist.eu[146] 2015-11-17 196 201 76 31 42 88 62 42 13
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[147] 2015-11-01 197 203 75 31 42 88 61 42 12
Der (europäische) Föderalist[148] 2015-10-17 204 193 75 33 54 66 51 51 24
Der (europäische) Föderalist[149] 2015-08-21 204 190 74 35 49 70 56 47 26
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[150] 2015-07-03 206 193 68 36 39 80 69 30 30
Der (europäische) Föderalist[151] 2015-06-30 205 188 73 34 47 69 61 43 31
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[152] 2015-05-05 218 196 75 31 71 74 34 52
Der (europäische) Föderalist[153] 2015-05-03 205 193 80 32 (51) 62 60 44 24
Der (europäische) Föderalist[154] 2015-03-10 216 196 77 31 (49) 60 60 43 19
Der (europäische) Föderalist[155] 2015-01-12 212 190 70 40 (43) 59 65 47 25
Der (europäische) Föderalist[156] 2014-11-18 212 195 69 42 (43) 59 60 47 24
Der (europäische) Föderalist[157] 2014-09-23 223 196 67 39 (40) 61 53 47 25
Der (europäische) Föderalist[126] 2014-07-28 215 191 75 47 (40) 66 56 44 17
European election 2014 2014-05-25 221 191 67 50 (37) 70 52 48 15
  1. ^ If the group had been able to be formed

Percent

The following table shows projections with vote share instead of seats.

Opinion polls by vote share
Institute Date EPP S&D ECR RE Greens/EFA GUE/NGL EFDD ENF NI Others
Result[158] 2019-05-26 21.0% 18.5% 8.2% 13.0% 11.7% 6.5% 5.7% 10.8% 1.5% 3.1%
Europe Elects[159] 2019-04-10 22.9% 18.0% 8.0% 13.1% 8.4% 7.3% 6.8% 8.4% 6.8%
Europe Elects[160] 2018-12-27 21.4% 17.8% 5.9% 12.7% 7.0% 7.5% 8.2% 9.2% 9.3%
Europe Elects[102] 2018-12-05 21.6% 17.9% 5.7% 13.1% 7.4% 8.3% 8.2% 8.6% 1.0% 8.3%
Europe Elects[161] 2018-11-11 20.8% 17.6% 5.1% 13.3% 7.0% 8.8% 9.1% 9.6% 1.0% 7.8%
Europe Elects[161] 2018-10-26 20.9% 18.4% 5.0% 11.6% 6.4% 8.6% 9.3% 9.1% 1.1% 9.7%
Europe Elects[161] 2018-10-18 21.5% 18.4% 4.3% 12.0% 6.4% 8.7% 9.5% 9.3% 1.0% 8.9%
Europe Elects[162] 2018-10-14 21.3% 18.3% 3.9% 12.6% 6.3% 8.6% 9.5% 9.3% 1.0% 9.1%
Europe Elects[163] 2018-10-13 21.3% 18.4% 3.9% 12.5% 6.3% 8.6% 9.5% 9.3% 1.0% 9.1%
Europe Elects[163] 2018-10-12 21.3% 18.5% 3.9% 12.5% 6.5% 8.6% 9.6% 9.3% 1.0% 9.1%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de/Europe Elects[164] 2018-06-01 20% 19.5% 9.5% 12.5% 6% 8% 8.5% 7.5% 2% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de/Europe Elects[164] 2018-05-01 20.5% 21% 10.5% 13% 4.5% 8% 8% 7% 2% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de/Europe Elects[164] 2018-04-01 20.5% 19.5% 10% 14% 4.5% 7.5% 8% 6.5% 1.5% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2018-03-07 21% 20.5% 10% 12.5% 4.5% 7.5% 8.5% 6% 2.5% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2018-01-30 21% 22% 10% 13.5% 5% 7.5% 7.5% 5.5% 2% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2018-01-01 21% 22.5% 10% 12.5% 4.5% 8.5% 7.5% 5.5% 2% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2017-11-30 21.5% 22% 10% 12.5% 4% 8% 7% 6.5% 2% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2017-11-14 21.5% 21.5% 9.5% 13% 4% 8% 7% 6% 3% 6%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2017-10-06 21% 23% 9.5% 12.5% 4.5% 8% 4.5% 7% 3% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2017-09-14 22.5% 23% 9.5% 13% 4.5% 8% 4.5% 6% 3% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2017-06-14 22.5% 24% 8% 12.5% 4% 8% 4% 5.5% 3% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[164] 2017-05-22 22% 23% 8.5% 12% 4% 8% 4.5% 6.5% 3% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[165] 2017-03-28 22% 23% 8.5% 8% 4% 7.5% 6% 7% 6.5% 7.5%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[166] 2017-03-01 21% 23.5% 9% 8.5% 4% 7.5% 6.5% 7.5% 6% 6.5%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[167] 2017-02-02 23% 20.5% 9.5% 8% 4.5% 8% 6% 8.5% 5.5% 6.5%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[168] 2017-01-07 23.5% 22% 9% 8.5% 4.5% 7.5% 6.5% 9% 3.5% 6.5%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[169] 2016-12-01 23.5% 22.5% 9% 8.5% 4.5% 7.5% 6.5% 8.5% 3.5% 6%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[130] 2016-10-31 23% 21% 9% 8% 5% 8% 7% 9% 3% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[131] 2016-10-01 24% 22% 9% 9% 4% 8% 7% 9% 3% 5%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[170] 2016-09-01 25% 24% 10% 12% 4% 8% 5% 8% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[132] 2016-08-13 26% 24% 10% 11% 4% 8% 5% 8% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[134] 2016-07-13 27% 25% 9% 12% 4% 7% 5% 8% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[171] 2016-06-23 24% 24% 10% 12% 4% 8% 6% 8% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[136] 2016-06-01 25% 23% 10% 11% 5% 8% 6% 8% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[172] 2016-05-22 25% 24% 10% 11% 4% 8% 6% 8% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[173] 2016-05-02 25% 24% 9% 12% 4% 9% 7% 7% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[140] 2016-04-02 27% 24% 11% 12% 4% 8% 5% 6% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[141] 2016-03-01 25% 24% 11% 13% 4% 9% 5% 6% ?
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[174] 2016-02-02 25% 25% 11% 11% 4% 9% 5% 7% 3%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[143] 2016-01-04 26% 25% 10% 13% 4% 9% 5% 6% 2%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[145] 2015-12-02 26% 25% 12% 11% 5% 8% 5% 6% 2%
Europe Elects/thenewfederalist.eu[146] 2015-11-17 26% 27% 12% 10% 4% 8% 5% 6% 2%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[147] 2015-11-01 26% 27% 12% 10% 4% 8% 5% 6% 2%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[175] 2015-10-01 26% 26% 10% 11% 4% 9% 5% 6% 3%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[176] 2015-09-01 27% 26% 11% 10% 5% 9% 4% 5% 3%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[177] 2015-08-06 27% 26% 10% 9% 5% 10% 4% 5% 3%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[150] 2015-07-03 27% 26% 11% 9% 5% 9% 4% 5% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[178] 2015-06-16 27% 25% 10% 10.5% 5% 9% 4% 5.5% 4%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[179] 2015-06-02 27% 26% 11% 9% 4% 9% 5% 9%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[152] 2015-05-05 29% 26% 9% 10% 4% 10% 5% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[180] 2015-04-03 29% 27% 10% 9% 4% 9% 4% 8%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[181] 2015-03-12 29% 27% 10% 9% 4% 10% 4% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2015-01-30 29% 27% 9% 10% 4% 9% 5% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-12-30 29% 27% 10% 9% 4% 10% 4% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-11-30 29% 27% 10% 10% 5% 9% 4% 6%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-10-30 29% 26% 9% 10% 5% 9% 4% 8%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-09-30 29% 26% 9% 10% 5% 9% 5% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-08-30 27% 28% 9% 10% 5% 9% 5% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-07-30 28% 26% 10% 10% 6% 8% 5% 7%
Europe Elects/treffpunkteuropa.de[182] 2014-06-30 29% 26% 9% 10% 6% 8% 5% 7%
European election 2014 2014-05-25 29.2 % 25.4 % 9.1 % 8.9 % 6.8 % 6.7 % 6.4 % 7.1 %

Aftermath

President of the Commission Approval

The heads of governments, gathered in a European Council on 1–3 July 2019, could not agree on a consensus President of the Commission. The two Spitzenkandidaten were discussed, but neither Manfred Weber (EPP), nor Frans Timmermans (PES), who had the backing of many leaders but not of those from the Visegrad Group, had a majority.

In the final hours of the vote, the name of Ursula von der Leyen was suggested and agreed to by all governments, with Germany's abstention.

The European Parliament voted to approve her nomination on 16 July.

Ursula von der Leyen (EPP, Germany) as President of the European Commission
16 July 2019 Public accounts of the vote
(individual votes unknown, as the ballot was secret)
Required majority
374 out of 747 checkY
GUE/NGL S&D G/EFA RE EPP ECR ID NI
Yes
383 / 747
73 or more 108 or less

European Union ALDE (108)[186]

182 or less 26 or more

Poland PiS-SP (26)[185]

14 or more

Italy M5S (14)[188]

No
327 / 747
41 or less

European Union GUE/NGL[189]

42 or more 74 or less 9 or more 5 or more 42 or more 29 or more

United Kingdom Brexit (29)[188]

Abstentions
23 / 747
Absentees
14 / 747
Total : 747 41 153 74 108 182 62 73 54

Le Grand Continent published a detailed analysis of the secret ballot.[183] The authors numbered the public pledges of national delegations and individual MEPs as amounting to 410, which is 27 more than what von der Leyen ultimately received. To explain the difference, they suggested three scenarios: one in which the support of delegations from the S&D group (some for, some against, some equivocal) was lower than admitted, another in which MEPs from the populist parties in government (Poland's PiS, Hungary's Fidesz and Italy's M5S) were claiming support only to gain leverage, and a half-way scenario which they see as the likeliest. In two of these three scenarios, the S&D group, which for decades was the pillar of the Grand coalition in Europe, no longer has a majority of MEPs supporting the Commission.

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Turnout | 2019 European election results | European Parliament". election-results.eu.
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