Accession of Montenegro to the European Union

Ongoing accession process of Montenegro to the EU
Current Progress
Chapters Unopened0
Chapters Open30
Chapters Closed3 (provisionally closed)
9.1% complete
Prerequisites
European Perspective RecognizedJune 2006
Association Agreement 221 May 2010
Potential Candidate Status GrantedDecember 2002
Candidate Status Granted17 December 2010
Negotiations
Membership Application15 December 2008
QuestionnaireSent
22 June 2009

Approved
9 November 2009

Returned
9 December 2009
Application Approved17 December 2010
Negotiations Start29 June 2012
Screening Completed27 June 2013
All Chapters CompletedTBD
Ratification of TreatyTBD
Accession2025
Defense & Military
NATO
Accession5 June 2017
Major Obstacles
Border dispute with Croatia.[1]

Corruption remains "prevalent" and a "serious problem" according to the Commission.[2]

Economy
Instrument for Pre-Accession AssistanceIPA I
€236 M
(2007-2013)

IPA II
€271 M
(2014-2020)

IPA III
€? M:
(?-?)
Adoption of Euro1 January 2002 (unofficially)
Comparison
EU averageMontenegro
Population16,555,837620,739 (2021)
Area156,417 km2
60,536 mi2
13,812 km2
5,333 mi2
GDP$634 billion
(nominal, 2021 est.)
$742 billion
(PPP, 2021 est.)
$4.790 billion
(nominal, 2020 est.)
$11.994 billion
(PPP, 2020 est.)
GDP per capita $34,149
(nominal, 2021 est.)
$44,766
(PPP, 2021 est.)
$7,688
(nominal, 2020 est.)
$19,252
(PPP, 2020 est.)
HDI0.8950.829 (2020)
Gini30.232.9 (2020)
Differences upon EU Accession
Entire EU
EU Population447,628,335
Increase 0.14%
EU Area4,237,074 km2
Increase 0.3%
1,639,805 mi2
Increase 0.3%
EU GDP$170,842 billion
(2021)
Increase 0.03%
EU GDP per capita$33,227.63
(2020)
Decrease 2.77%
HDI0.893 (2020)
Decrease 0.3%
Gini30.11 (2020)
Negative increase 0.36%
New Official LanguagesMontenegrin
Increase 1
Average EU Member
Avg. EU Member Population15,986,727
Decrease 3.6%
Avg. EU Member Area151,324 km2
Decrease 3.3%
58,564 mi2
Decrease 3.3%
Avg. EU Member GDP$716.8 million
(2021)
Decrease 3.5%
Avg. EU Member GDP per capita$1220.45
(2021)
Decrease 3.5%
Initiatives, Treaties, & Programs
Eastern Partnership22 January 2007
OthersEnergy Community Member
joined 15 December 2006

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity: Member

Travel
Schengen Visa Liberalisation19 December 2009
Accession to Schengen AreaTBD
Coat of arms of Montenegro.svg
Constitution
Judiciary
  • Supreme Court
  • Constitutional Court
  • Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS)
  • Democrats (DCG)
  • New Serb Democracy (NOVA)
  • Movement for Changes (PzP)
  • Social Democratic Party (SDP)
  • Democratic People's Party (DNP)
  • Socialist People's Party (SNP)
  • United Reform Action (URA)
  • Democratic Alliance (Demos)
  • United Montenegro (UCG)
  • Bosniak Party (BS)
  • Social Democrats (SD)
  • New Democratic Power (FORCA)
  • Croatian Civic Initiative (HGI)
  • Workers' Party (RP)
  • Liberal Party (LP)
Recent elections
    • Presidential: 2018
    • 2023
    • Parliamentary: 2020
    • next
  • v
  • t
  • e

Accession of Montenegro to the European Union is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.

Shortly after voting for independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in a referendum in 2006, Montenegro began the process of accession to the European Union by agreeing to a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU, which officially came into force on 1 May 2010.

Montenegro officially applied to join the EU on 15 December 2008, and membership negotiations began on 29 June 2012. With all the negotiating chapters opened, the country enjoys a widespread support among EU members' officials, and accession of the country to the EU is considered possible by 2025.[3]

History

Note: This section covers the relationship between Montenegro and the EU since Montenegro's potential candidate status was granted.

Identification

Montenegro was granted potential candidate status in December 2002, when it was still in a union with Serbia. The country's European Perspective was recognized by the EU in June of 2006 at the Thessaloniki Summit.

Recommendation

The European Commission recommended Montenegro as candidate country on 9 November 2010.

Candidacy

Montenegro officially was granted candidate status on 17 December 2010.[4]

Membership application

Montenegro officially applied to join the EU on 15 December 2008.[5]

Questionnaire

On 23 April 2009, the Council invited the European Commission to submit its opinion on the application. The Commission presented Montenegro with a questionnaire to assess its application on 22 July 2009.[6] On 9 December 2009, Montenegro delivered its answers to the EC questionnaire.[7] In 2010, the Commission issued a favourable opinion on Montenegro's application, identifying seven key priorities that would need to be addressed for negotiations to begin.

Treaties and NATO

Stabilisation and Association Agreement

The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro started the process of Accession to the European Union in November 2005, when negotiations over a Stabilisation and Association Agreement began. Such agreements were concluded by the EU with states that have expressed a wish to become members. In exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in the country, it may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc.), and financial or technical assistance. In May 2006, Montenegro voted for independence in a referendum and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was dissolved. Serbia continued with the existing SAA negotiations, and separate negotiations were launched with Montenegro in September 2006.[8][9][10] The Agreement was initialled on 15 March 2007, and officially signed on 15 October 2007. After all the 27 member-states of EU had ratified the SAA, it came into force on 1 May 2010.[11][12]

Status of SAA ratification
Event North Macedonia [13] Croatia [14] Albania [15] Montenegro [16][Note 1] Bosnia and
Herzegovina [18]
Serbia [19][Note 2] Kosovo* [20][Note 3]
SAA negotiations start 2000-04-05 2000-11-24 2003-01-31 2005-10-10 2005-11-25 2005-10-10 2013-10-28[22]
SAA initialled 2000-11-24 2001-05-14 2006-02-28 2007-03-15 2007-12-04 2007-11-07 2014-07-25[23]
SAA/IA signature 2001-04-09 2001-10-29 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2008-04-29 2015-10-27[24]
Interim Agreement:
EC ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2009-12-08 N/A [Note 4]
SAP state ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-10-09 2007-11-14 2008-06-20 2008-09-22 N/A [Note 4]
entry into force 2001-06-01 2002-03-01 2006-12-01 2008-01-01 2008-07-01 2010-02-01 N/A [Note 4]
Deposit of the instrument of ratification:
SAP state 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-11-09 2007-11-13 2009-02-26 2008-09-22 2016-02-26
Austria 2002-09-06 2002-03-15 2008-05-21 2008-07-04 2009-09-04 2011-01-13 N/A
Belgium 2003-12-29 2003-12-17 2008-10-22 2010-03-29 2010-03-29 2012-03-20 N/A
Bulgaria entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2009-03-13 2010-08-12 N/A
Croatia entered the EU later N/A
Cyprus entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2008-11-20 2009-07-02 2010-11-26 N/A
Czech Republic entered the EU later 2008-05-07 2009-02-19 2009-07-23 2011-01-28 N/A
Denmark 2002-04-10 2002-05-08 2008-04-24 2008-06-25 2009-05-26 2011-03-04 N/A
Estonia entered the EU later 2007-10-17 2007-11-22 2008-09-11 2010-08-19 N/A
Finland 2004-01-06 2004-01-06 2007-11-29 2009-03-18 2009-04-07 2011-10-21 N/A
France 2003-06-04 2003-06-04 2009-02-12 2009-07-30 2011-02-10 2012-01-16 N/A
Germany 2002-06-20 2002-10-18 2009-02-19 2009-11-16 2009-08-14 2012-02-24 N/A
Greece 2003-08-27 2003-08-27 2009-02-26 2010-03-04 2010-09-20 2011-03-10 N/A
Hungary entered the EU later 2007-04-23 2008-05-14 2008-10-22 2010-11-16 N/A
Ireland 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 2007-06-11 2009-06-04 2009-06-04 2011-09-29 N/A
Italy 2003-10-30 2004-10-06 2008-01-07 2009-10-13 2010-09-08 2011-01-06 N/A
Latvia entered the EU later 2006-12-19 2008-10-17 2009-11-12 2011-05-30 N/A
Lithuania entered the EU later 2007-05-17 2009-03-04 2009-05-04 2013-06-26 N/A
Luxembourg 2003-07-28 2003-08-01 2007-07-04 2009-06-11 2010-12-22 2011-01-21 N/A
Malta entered the EU later 2008-04-21 2008-12-11 2010-01-07 2010-07-06 N/A
Netherlands 2002-09-09 2004-04-30 2007-12-10 2009-01-29 2009-09-30 2012-02-27 N/A
Poland entered the EU later 2007-04-14 2009-02-06 2010-04-07 2012-01-13 N/A
Portugal 2003-07-14 2003-07-14 2008-07-11 2008-09-23 2009-06-29 2011-03-04 N/A
Romania entered the EU later 2009-01-15 2010-01-08 2012-05-22 N/A
Slovakia entered the EU later 2007-07-20 2008-07-29 2009-03-17 2010-11-11 N/A
Slovenia entered the EU later 2007-01-18 2008-02-07 2009-03-10 2010-12-07 N/A
Spain 2002-10-04 2002-10-04 2007-05-03 2009-03-12 2010-06-15 2010-06-21 N/A
Sweden 2002-06-25 2003-03-27 2007-03-21 2009-03-11 2009-09-14 2011-04-15 N/A
United Kingdom 2002-12-17 2004-09-03 2007-10-16 2010-01-12 2010-04-20 2011-08-11 N/A
European Communities or
European Union and Euratom
2004-02-25 2004-12-21 2009-02-26 2010-03-29 2015-04-30 2013-07-22 2016-02-24 [Note 5]
SAA entry into force 2004-04-01 2005-02-01 2009-04-01 2010-05-01 2015-06-01 2013-09-01 2016-04-01[28]
EU membership (SAA lapsed) (TBD) 2013-07-01 (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD)

N/A: Not applicable.

  1. ^ Montenegro started negotiations in November 2005 while a part of Serbia and Montenegro (SiM). Separate technical negotiations were conducted regarding issues of sub-state organizational competency. A mandate for direct negotiations with Montenegro was established in July 2006. Direct negotiations were initiated on 26 September 2006 and concluded on 1 December 2006.[17]
  2. ^ Serbia started negotiations in November 2005 while part of SiM, with a modified mandate from July 2006.
  3. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 97 UN member states (with another 15 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 96 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The European Union remains divided on its policy towards Kosovo, with five EU member states not recognizing its independence. The EU launched a Stabilisation Tracking Mechanism for Kosovo on 6 November 2002 with the aim of aligning its policy with EU standards. On 10 October 2012 the European Commission found that there were no legal obstacles to Kosovo signing a SAA with the EU, as independence is not required for such an agreement.[21]
  4. ^ a b c No Interim Agreement associated with Kosovo's SAA was concluded.[25]
  5. ^ Kosovo's SAA was the first signed after the entry into force of the Lisbon treaty, which conferred a legal personality to the EU. As a result, unlike previous SAAs Kosovo's is exclusively between it and the EU and Euratom, and the member states are not parties independently.[22][26][27]

Accession to NATO

Montenegro officially joined NATO on 5 June 2017.

EU Programs and Organizations

Eastern Partnership: 22 January 2007

Energy Community: joined 15 December 2006

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity:

Public Opinion

Montenegro's population is overwhelmingly pro-EU, with 76.2% being in favour according to polling and only 9.8% against, in October 2009.[29]

Negotiations

In December 2011, the Council agreed to launch the accession process, with negotiations beginning on 29 June 2012.

With all the negotiating chapters opened, the country enjoys a widespread support among EU members' officials, and accession of the country to the EU is considered possible by 2025.[30] In its 2016 assessment of the accession progress, European Commission has identified Montenegro as having the highest level of preparation for membership among the negotiating states. Until 2020, Montenegro had received €507 million of developmental aid from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.

Montenegro is experiencing ecological, judicial and crime-related problems that may hinder its bid.[31] Montenegro signed an agreement with the Bulgarian government in December 2007 in which Bulgaria will assist Montenegro with its Euro-Atlantic and EU integration for the following three years.[32] To work on these matters the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of Montenegro has a special agency dedicated to accession to the EU, the Office for assistance to the Chief Negotiator. The goal of the office is to support the task of the Chief Negotiator for Montenegro's Accession to EU, Zorka Kordić. On 27 July 2010, the Parliament passed a non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity as prohibited grounds of discrimination. This was one of the requirements the country had to meet for EU membership.[33]

There are currently thirty chapters opened, three chapters that have been provisionally closed, and two chapters in which there is nothing to adopt.

Clusters of negotiating chapters[34]
Clusters Acquis Chapter State of Play Cluster Opened Cluster Closed
Overview Overview 33 out of 33 6 out of 6 0 out of 6
Fundamentals 23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Opened Opened
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Opened
Economic criteria
Functioning of democratic institutions
Public administration reform
5. Public Procurement Opened
18. Statistics Opened
32. Financial Control Opened
Internal Market 1. Free Movement of Goods Opened Opened
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Opened
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Opened
4. Free Movement of Capital Opened
6. Company Law Opened
7. Intellectual Property Law Opened
8. Competition Policy Opened
9. Financial Services Opened
28. Consumer & Health Protection Opened
Competitiveness

and inclusive growth

10. Information Society & Media Opened Opened
16. Taxation Opened
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Opened
19. Social Policy & Employment Opened
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Opened
25. Science & Research Closed
26. Education & Culture Closed
29. Customs Union Opened
Green agenda

and sustainable connectivity

14. Transport Policy Opened Opened
15. Energy Opened
21. Trans-European Networks Opened
27. Environment Opened
Resources, agriculture

and cohesion

11. Agriculture & Rural Development Opened Opened
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Opened
13. Fisheries Opened
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Opened
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Opened
External relations 30. External Relations Closed Opened
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Opened
34. Institutions
35. Other Issues
Chapter and Screening Dates
Progression 33 / 33
100% complete
33 / 33
100% complete
33 / 33
100% complete
3 / 33
9.1% complete
Acquis chapter Screening started Screening completed Chapter opened Chapter closed
Overview 33 out of 33 33 out of 33 33 out of 33[35] 3 out of 33[35]
1. Free Movement of Goods 2013-01-14 2013-03-06 2017-06-20
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers 2013-05-13 2013-06-07 2017-12-11[36]
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services 2012-10-23 2012-11-30 2017-12-11[36]
4. Free Movement of Capital 2013-01-18 2013-02-21 2014-06-24[37]
5. Public Procurement 2012-09-27 2012-11-19 2013-12-18
6. Company Law 2012-10-02 2012-11-22 2013-12-18
7. Intellectual Property Law 2012-10-11 2012-11-21 2014-03-31
8. Competition Policy 2012-10-03 2012-12-04 2020-06-30
9. Financial Services 2013-04-17 2013-06-11 2015-06-22[38]
10. Information Society & Media 2012-12-06 2013-01-22 2014-03-31
11. Agriculture & Rural Development 2012-11-06 2012-12-13 2016-12-13
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy 2012-10-15 2013-02-01 2016-06-30
13. Fisheries 2013-03-14 2013-06-06 2016-06-30
14. Transport Policy 2013-04-22 2013-05-30 2015-12-21
15. Energy 2013-02-27 2013-04-11 2015-12-21
16. Taxation 2013-04-08 2013-04-30 2015-03-30
17. Economic & Monetary Policy 2013-01-10 2013-02-26 2018-06-25
18. Statistics 2013-06-03 2013-06-25 2014-12-16[39]
19. Social Policy & Employment 2013-01-23 2013-03-13 2016-12-13
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy 2012-10-25 2012-11-28 2013-12-18
21. Trans-European Networks 2013-04-22 2013-05-30 2015-06-22[38]
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments 2012-11-14 2012-12-18 2017-06-20
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights 2012-03-26[40] 2012-05-31 2013-12-18
24. Justice, Freedom & Security 2012-03-28[40] 2012-05-25 2013-12-18
25. Science & Research 2012-09-24 2012-09-25 2012-12-18 2012-12-18[41]
26. Education & Culture 2012-09-26 2012-11-16 2013-04-15 2013-04-15[42]
27. Environment & Climate Change 2013-02-04 2013-03-22 2018-12-10[43]
28. Consumer & Health Protection 2013-02-19 2013-04-16 2014-12-16[39]
29. Customs Union 2013-05-23 2013-06-21 2014-12-16[39]
30. External Relations 2013-05-14 2013-06-12 2015-03-30 2017-06-20
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy 2013-05-17 2013-06-27 2014-06-24[37]
32. Financial Control 2013-05-16 2013-06-19 2014-06-24[37]
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions 2013-05-15 2013-06-26 2014-12-16[39]
34. Institutions N/A N/A N/A N/A
35. Other Issues N/A N/A N/A N/A
Report History
Acquis chapter October 2011[44] October 2012[45] October 2013[46] October 2014[47] November 2015[48] November 2016[49] April 2018[50] May 2019[51] October 2020[52] October 2021[53]
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
4. Free Movement of Capital Some level of preparation Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
5. Public Procurement Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
6. Company Law Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
7. Intellectual Property Law Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
8. Competition Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
9. Financial Services Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
10. Information Society & Media Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
13. Fisheries Further efforts needed Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
14. Transport Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparationdagger Good level of preparationdagger
15. Energy Moderately prepared Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
16. Taxation Further efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
18. Statistics Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
19. Social Policy & Employment Early stage Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparationdagger Good level of preparationdagger
21. Trans-European Networks Further efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparationdagger Good level of preparationdagger
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Early stage Considerable efforts needed Early stage Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
25. Science & Research Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
27. Environment & Climate Change Considerable efforts needed Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared No major difficulties expected Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
29. Customs Union Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
30. External Relations Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared No major difficulties expected Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared No major difficulties expected Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
32. Financial Control Some level of preparation Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Legend:

Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.

dagger indicates chapters in which the European Commission has simultaneously awarded the chapter both "moderately prepared" AND "good level of preparation".

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Economy

Developmental Aid

Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance

IPA I
€236 M
(2007-2013)

IPA II
€271 M
(2014-2020)

IPA III
€? M:
(?-?)

Unilateral euro adoption

Montenegro has no currency of its own. As a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia following World War II, and later of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Montenegro used the Yugoslav dinar as its official currency. In November 1999, the government of Montenegro unilaterally designated the Deutsche Mark as its co-official currency with the dinar, and on 1 January 2001 the dinar officially ceased to be a legal tender in Montenegro.[54][55] When the euro was introduced and the Deutsche Mark yielded in 2002, Montenegro followed suit and began using the euro as well, with no objection from the European Central Bank (ECB).[56][57]

The European Commission and the ECB have since voiced their discontent over Montenegro's unilateral use of the euro on several occasions.[58] A statement attached to their Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU read: "unilateral introduction of the euro was not compatible with the Treaty."[59] The EU insists on the strict adherence to convergence criteria (such as spending at least 2 years in the ERMII system) which are not negotiable before euro adoption, but have not intervened to stop the unilateral adoption of the euro by Montenegro in 2002.[58][60] The issue is expected to be resolved through the negotiations process.[58] The ECB has stated that the implications of unilateral euro adoption "would be spelled out at the latest in the event of possible negotiations on EU accession."[59]

Diplomats have suggested that it's unlikely Montenegro will be forced to withdraw the euro from circulation in their country.[56][59] Radoje Žugić, Montenegro's Minister of Finance, has stated that "it would be extremely economically irrational to return to our own currency and then later to again go back to the euro."[61] Instead, he hopes that Montenegro will be permitted to keep the euro and has promised "the government of Montenegro, will adopt some certain elements, which should fulfil the conditions for further use of the euro; such as adopting fiscal rules."[61]

Travel

Schengen Visa liberalisation process

On 1 January 2008, the visa facilitation and readmission agreements between Montenegro and the EU entered into force.[62] Montenegro was added to the list of visa exempt nationals on 19 December 2009, allowing their citizens to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa when traveling with biometric passports.[63] Visa liberalisation process does not include travels to Ireland as this country operates its own respective visa regime outside of the Schengen Agreement.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Montenegro Plans New Commission to Solve Croatia Border Dispute". 28 April 2021. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  2. ^ "The race for EU membership". POLITICO. 15 December 2016. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  3. ^ "Montenegro Targets 2025 to be Ready for EU Accession". Balkan Insight. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  4. ^ "Commission Opinion on Montenegro's application for membership of the European Union" (PDF). Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  5. ^ Montenegro formally applies to join European Union at the Wayback Machine (archive index) EUbusiness, 16 December 2008, archived on 26 April 2009 from the original Archived 17 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "EC questionnaire to Montenegro" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  7. ^ "Montenegro delivers answers to EC questionnaire". Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  8. ^ Enlargement Process – Montenegro Key Events Archived 22 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, European Commission, accessed on 10 January 2007
  9. ^ Germany prepares to take over EU presidency, Southeast European Times, 19 December 2006, accessed on 10 January 2007
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  11. ^ "SAA comes into force for Montenegro". Archived from the original on 3 May 2010.
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