Croatia

Country in Southeast Europe

Coordinates 22: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500

Republic of Croatia
Republika Hrvatska  (Croatian)[a]
Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"
("Our Beautiful Homeland")
EU-Croatia (orthographic projection).pngShow globe
EU-Croatia.svgShow map of Europe
Location of Croatia (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Zagreb[b]
45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000
Official languagesCroatian[c]
Writing systemLatin[d]
Ethnic groups
(2011[4])
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Zoran Milanović
Andrej Plenković
Gordan Jandroković
LegislatureSabor
Establishment history
• Duchy
9th century
• Kingdom
925
1102
• Joined Habsburg Monarchy
1 January 1527
• Secession from
Austria-Hungary
29 October 1918
4 December 1918
25 June 1991[5]
12 November 1995
1 July 2013
Area
• Total
56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (124th)
• Water (%)
1.09
Population
• 2021 estimate
Neutral decrease 3,888,529[6] (128th)
• 2011 census
4,284,889[7]
• Density
73/km2 (189.1/sq mi) (109th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$145 billion [8] (80th)
• Per capita
Increase$36,201 (49th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$69.45 billion (81st)
• Per capita
Increase$17,337 [8] (66th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 28.3[9]
low
HDI (2021)Increase 0.858[10]
very high · 40th
CurrencyCroatian kuna (HRK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd. mm. yyyy. (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+385
ISO 3166 codeHR
Internet TLD

Croatia (/krˈʃə/ (listen), kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, (listen)),[e] is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe. It shares a coastline along the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Italy to the west and southwest. Croatia's capital and largest city, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, with twenty counties. The country spans an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), hosting a population of nearly 3.9 million.

The Croats arrived in the late 6th century. By the 9th century, they had organized the territory into two duchies. Croatia was first internationally recognized as independent on 7 June 879 during the reign of Duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918, merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of Croatia was incorporated into a Nazi-installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia. A resistance movement led to the creation of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, and the War of Independence was successfully fought over the subsequent four years.

Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Croatia is set to replace its national currency, the Croatian kuna with the Euro on 1 January 2023, officially becoming the 20th Eurozone member. An active participant in United Nations peacekeeping, Croatia contributed troops to the International Security Assistance Force and filled a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Croatia is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy and ranks highly on the Human Development Index. Service, industrial sectors, and agriculture dominate the economy, respectively. Tourism is a significant source of revenue for the country, which is ranked among the 20 most popular tourist destinations. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education while supporting culture through public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

Etymology

Croatia's name derives from Medieval Latin Croātia, itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xərwate, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which possibly comes from the 3rd-century Scytho-Sarmatian form attested in the Tanais Tablets as Χοροάθος (Khoroáthos, alternate forms comprise Khoróatos and Khoroúathos).[12] The origin is uncertain, but most probably is from Proto-Ossetian / Alanian *xurvæt- or *xurvāt-, in the meaning of "one who guards" ("guardian, protector").[13] The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of the variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king"),[14] although it was archaeologically confirmed that the ethnonym Croatorum is mentioned in a church inscription found in Bijaći near Trogir dated to the end of the 8th or early 9th century.[15] The presumably oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm, likely dated between 879 and 892, during his rule.[16] The Latin term Chroatorum is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir I of Croatia, dated to 852 in a 1568 copy of a lost original, but it is not certain if the original was indeed older than the Branimir inscription.[17][18]

History

Ceramic sculpture
Stone Sculpture
Left: Vučedol culture, Vučedol dove made between 2800 and 2500 BCE
Right: Croatian Apoxyomenos, Ancient Greek statue, 2nd or 1st century BC.

Prehistory

The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Neanderthal fossils dating to the middle Palaeolithic period were unearthed in northern Croatia, best presented in Krapina.[19] Remnants of Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions.[20] The largest proportion of sites is in the valleys of northern Croatia. The most significant are Baden, Starčevo, and Vučedol cultures.[21][22] Iron Age hosted the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture and the Celtic La Tène culture.[23]

Antiquity

The 1st century-built Pula Arena was the sixth largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire

Much later, the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar,[24] Korčula, and Vis.[25] In 9 AD, the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian was native to the region. He had a large palace built in Split, to which he retired after abdicating in AD 305.[26]

During the 5th century, the last de jure Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled a small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy in 475.[27] The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and the destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast, islands, and mountains. The city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum.[28]

Middle Ages

Kingdom of Croatia c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav

The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain. The most accepted theory, the Slavic theory, proposes migration of White Croats from White Croatia during the Migration Period. Conversely, the Iranian theory proposes Iranian origin, based on Tanais Tablets containing Ancient Greek inscriptions of given names Χορούαθος, Χοροάθος, and Χορόαθος (Khoroúathos, Khoroáthos, and Khoróathos) and their interpretation as anthroponyms of Croatian people.[29]

According to the work De Administrando Imperio written by 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, Croats arrived in the Roman province of Dalmatia in the first half of the 7th century after they defeated the Avars.[30][31][32] However, that claim is disputed, and competing hypotheses date the event between the late 6th-early 7th (mainstream) or the late 8th-early 9th (fringe) centuries,[33][34] but recent archaeological data established that the migration and settlement of the Slavs/Croats have been in late 6th and early 7th century.[35][36][37] Eventually, a dukedom was formed, Duchy of Croatia, ruled by Borna, as attested by chronicles of Einhard starting in 818. The record represents the first document of Croatian realms, vassal states of Francia at the time.[38]

The Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later.[39] According to Constantine VII Christianisation of Croats began in the 7th century, but the claim is disputed, and generally, Christianisation is associated with the 9th century.[40] The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was Duke Branimir, who received papal recognition from Pope John VIII on 7 June 879.[16]

Coronation of King Tomislav by Oton Iveković

Tomislav was the first king of Croatia, noted as such in a letter of Pope John X in 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions.[41] The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir (1075–1089).[42] When Stjepan II died in 1091, ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Dmitar Zvonimir's brother-in-law Ladislaus i of Hungary claimed the Croatian crown. This led to a war and personal union with Hungary in 1102 under Coloman.[43]

Personal union with Hungary (1102) and Habsburg Monarchy (1527)

For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor (parliament) and a Ban (viceroy) appointed by the king.[44] This period saw the rise of influential nobility such as the Frankopan and Šubić families to prominence, and ultimately numerous Bans from the two families.[45] An increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and a struggle against the Republic of Venice for control of coastal areas ensued. The Venetians controlled most of Dalmatia by 1428, except the city-state of Dubrovnik, which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field and the 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II died at Mohács, and in 1527, the Croatian Parliament met in Cetin and chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg as the new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he protects Croatia against the Ottoman Empire while respecting its political rights.[44][46]

Croatian Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski is honoured as a national hero for his defence of Szigetvár against the Ottoman Empire

Following the decisive Ottoman victories, Croatia was split into civilian and military territories in 1538. The military territories became known as the Croatian Military Frontier and were under direct Habsburg control. Ottoman advances in Croatia continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, when borders stabilised.[46] During the Great Turkish War (1683–1698), Slavonia was regained, but western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia before the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control.[46] The present-day border between the two countries is a remnant of this outcome. Dalmatia, the southern part of the border, was similarly defined by the Fifth and the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars.[47]

The Ottoman wars drove demographic changes. During the 16th century, Croats from western and northern Bosnia, Lika, Krbava, the area between the rivers of Una and Kupa, and especially from western Slavonia, migrated towards Austria. Present-day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers.[48][49] To replace the fleeing population, the Habsburgs encouraged Bosnians to provide military service in the Military Frontier.

The Croatian Parliament supported King Charles III's Pragmatic Sanction and signed their own Pragmatic Sanction in 1712.[50] Subsequently, the emperor pledged to respect all privileges and political rights of the Kingdom of Croatia, and Queen Maria Theresa made significant contributions to Croatian affairs, such as introducing compulsory education.

Ban Josip Jelačić at the opening of the first modern Croatian Parliament (Sabor), June 5, 1848. The tricolour flag can be seen in the background.

Between 1797 and 1809, the First French Empire increasingly occupied the eastern Adriatic coastline and its hinterland, ending the Venetian and the Ragusan republics, establishing the Illyrian Provinces.[46] In response, the Royal Navy blockaded the Adriatic Sea, leading to the Battle of Vis in 1811.[51] The Illyrian provinces were captured by the Austrians in 1813 and absorbed by the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This led to the formation of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and the restoration of the Croatian Littoral to the Kingdom of Croatia under one crown.[52] The 1830s and 1840s featured romantic nationalism that inspired the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating the unity of South Slavs within the empire. Its primary focus was establishing a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian while promoting Croatian literature and culture.[53] During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Croatia sided with Austria. Ban Josip Jelačić helped defeat the Hungarians in 1849 and ushered in a Germanisation policy.[54]

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was an autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary created in 1868 following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.

By the 1860s, the failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The creation of a personal union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary followed. The treaty left Croatia's status to Hungary, which was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 when the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were united.[55] The Kingdom of Dalmatia remained under de facto Austrian control, while Rijeka retained the status of corpus separatum introduced in 1779.[43]

After Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Military Frontier was abolished. The Croatian and Slavonian sectors of the Frontier returned to Croatia in 1881,[46] under provisions of the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.[56][57] Renewed efforts to reform Austria-Hungary, entailing federalisation with Croatia as a federal unit, were stopped by World War I.[58]

First Yugoslavia (1918–1941)

Stjepan Radić, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party who advocated federal organisation of the Yugoslavia, at the assembly in Dubrovnik, 1928

On 29 October 1918 the Croatian Parliament (Sabor) declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs,[44] which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.[59] The Croatian Parliament never ratified the union with Serbia and Montenegro.[44] The 1921 constitution defining the country as a unitary state and abolition of Croatian Parliament and historical administrative divisions effectively ended Croatian autonomy.

The new constitution was opposed by the most widely supported national political party—the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) led by Stjepan Radić.[60]

The political situation deteriorated further as Radić was assassinated in the National Assembly in 1928, leading to King Alexander to establish a dictatorship in January 1929.[61] The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitary constitution.[62] The HSS, now led by Vladko Maček, continued to advocate federalisation, resulting in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of August 1939 and the autonomous Banovina of Croatia. The Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban.[63]

World War II

German dictator Adolf Hitler with Quisling and dictator of the Independent State of Croatia Ante Pavelić at the Berghof outside Berchtesgaden, Germany

In April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Following the invasion, a German-Italian installed puppet state named the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was established. Most of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the region of Syrmia were incorporated into this state. Parts of Dalmatia were annexed by Italy, Hungary annexed the northern Croatian regions of Baranja and Međimurje.[64] The NDH regime was led by Ante Pavelić and ultranationalist Ustaše, a fringe movement in pre-war Croatia.[65] With German and Italian military and political support,[66] the regime introduced racial laws and launched a genocide campaign against Serbs, Jews, and Roma.[67] Many were imprisoned in concentration camps; the largest was the Jasenovac complex.[68] Anti-fascist Croats were targeted by the regime as well.[69] Several concentration camps (most notably the Rab, Gonars and Molat camps) were established in Italian-occupied territories, mostly for Slovenes and Croats.[68] At the same time, the Yugoslav Royalist and Serbian nationalist Chetniks pursued a genocidal campaign against Croats and Muslims,[67][70] aided by Italy.[71] Nazi German forces committed crimes and reprisals against civilians in retaliation for Partisan actions, such as in the villages of Kamešnica and Lipa in 1944.[72][73]

Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac with the Croatian communist leader Vladimir Bakarić at the celebration of May Day, shortly before Stepinac was arrested by the Communists and taken to court

A resistance movement emerged. On 22 June 1941,[74] the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment was formed near Sisak, the first military unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Europe.[75] That sparked the beginning of the Yugoslav Partisan movement, a communist, multi-ethnic anti-fascist resistance group led by Josip Broz Tito.[76] In ethnic terms, Croats were the second-largest contributors to the Partisan movement after Serbs.[77] In per capita terms, Croats contributed proportionately to their population within Yugoslavia.[78] By May 1944 (according to Tito), Croats made up 30% of the Partisan's ethnic composition, despite making up 22% of the population.[77] The movement grew fast, and at the Tehran Conference in December 1943, the Partisans gained recognition from the Allies.[79]

With Allied support in logistics, equipment, training and airpower, and with the assistance of Soviet troops taking part in the 1944 Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans gained control of Yugoslavia and the border regions of Italy and Austria by May 1945. Members of the NDH armed forces and other Axis troops, as well as civilians, were in retreat towards Austria. Following their surrender, many were killed in the Yugoslav death march of Nazi collaborators.[80] In the following years, ethnic Germans faced persecution in Yugoslavia, and many were interned.[81]

The political aspirations of the Partisan movement were reflected in the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia, which developed in 1943 as the bearer of Croatian statehood and later transformed into the Parliament in 1945, and AVNOJ—its counterpart at the Yugoslav level.[82][83]

People of Zagreb celebrating liberation on 12 May 1945 by Croatian Partisans

Based on the studies on wartime and post-war casualties by demographer Vladimir Žerjavić and statistician Bogoljub Kočović, a total of 295,000 people from the territory (not including territories ceded from Italy after the war) died, which amounted to 7.3% of the population,[84] among whom were 125–137,000 Serbs, 118–124,000 Croats, 16–17,000 Jews, and 15,000 Roma.[85][86] In addition, from areas joined to Croatia after the war, a total of 32,000 people died, among whom 16,000 were Italians and 15,000 were Croats.[87] Approximately 200,000 Croats from the entirety of Yugoslavia (including Croatia) and abroad were killed in total throughout the war and its immediate aftermath, approximately 5.4% of the population.[88][89]

Second Yugoslavia (1945–1991)

After World War II, Croatia became a single-party socialist federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but having a degree of autonomy within the federation. In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding equal treatment for their language.[90]

Josip Broz Tito led SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon in the White House, 1971

The declaration contributed to a national movement seeking greater civil rights and redistribution of the Yugoslav economy, culminating in the Croatian Spring of 1971, which was suppressed by Yugoslav leadership.[91] Still, the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution gave increased autonomy to federal units, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents.[92]

Following Tito's death in 1980, the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated. National tension was fanned by the 1986 SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo, and Montenegro.[93][94] In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation.[95] In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, while Franjo Tuđman's win exacerbated nationalist tensions.[96] Some of the Serbs in Croatia left Sabor and declared the autonomy of the unrecognised Republic of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia.[97][98]

Croatian War of Independence

As tensions rose, Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991. However, the full implementation of the declaration only came into effect after a three-month moratorium on the decision on 8 October 1991.[99][100] In the meantime, tensions escalated into overt war when the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and various Serb paramilitary groups attacked Croatia.[101] By the end of 1991, a high-intensity conflict fought along a wide front reduced Croatia's control to about two-thirds of its territory.[102][103] Serb paramilitary groups then began a campaign of killing, terror, and expulsion of the Croats in the rebel territories, killing thousands[104] of Croat civilians and expelling or displacing as many as 400,000 Croats and other non-Serbs from their homes.[105] Serbs living in Croatian towns, especially those near the front lines, were subjected to various forms of discrimination.[106] Croatian Serbs in Eastern and Western Slavonia and parts of the Krajina were forced to flee or were expelled by Croatian forces, though on a restricted scale and in lesser numbers.[107] Similar practices were carried out by Croats against Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Croat–Bosniak War, although the Croatian Government publicly deplored these practices and sought to stop them, indicating that they were not a part of the Government's policy.[108]

The Eternal Flame and 938 marble crosses on the National Memorial Cemetery of The Victims of Homeland War in Vukovar, commemorates the victims of the Vukovar massacre as one of the symbolic and crucial events in Croatian War of Independence

On 15 January 1992, Croatia gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community, followed by the United Nations.[109][110] The war effectively ended in August 1995 with a decisive victory by Croatia;[111] the event is commemorated each year on 5 August as Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day and the Day of Croatian Defenders.[112] Following the Croatian victory, about 200,000 Serbs from the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina fled the region[113] and hundreds of mainly elderly Serb civilians were killed in the aftermath of the military operation.[114] Their lands were subsequently settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina.[115] The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia following the Erdut Agreement of November 1995, concluding with the UNTAES mission in January 1998.[116] Most sources number the war deaths at around 20,000.[117][118][119]

Independent Croatia (1991–present)

After the end of the war, Croatia faced the challenges of post-war reconstruction, the return of refugees, establishing democracy, protecting human rights, and general social and economic development. The main law is the Constitution, as adopted on 22 December 1990.[clarification needed]

The post-2000 period is characterised by democratisation, economic growth, structural and social reforms, as well as problems such as unemployment, corruption, and the inefficiency of the public administration.[120] In November 2000 and March 2001, the Parliament amended the Constitution, changing its bicameral structure back into its historic unicameral form and reducing presidential powers.[121]

Croatia joined the Partnership for Peace on 25 May 2000[122] and became a member of the World Trade Organization on 30 November 2000.[123] On 29 October 2001, Croatia signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the European Union,[124] submitted a formal application for the EU membership in 2003,[125] was given the status of candidate country in 2004,[126] and began accession negotiations in 2005.[127]

In December 2011, Croatia completed EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011.[128][129] Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013. A recurring obstacle to the negotiations was Croatia's ICTY co-operation record and Slovenian blocking of the negotiations because of Croatia–Slovenia border disputes.[130][131]

Croatia became the 28th EU member country on 1 July 2013

Although the Croatian economy had enjoyed a significant boom in the early 2000s, the financial crisis in 2008 forced the government to cut spending, thus provoking a public outcry.[132]

Croatia served on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term, assuming the presidency in December 2008.[133] On 1 April 2009, Croatia joined NATO.[134]

A wave of anti-government protests in early 2011 reflected a general dissatisfaction with politics and economics.[135]

Croatia completed EU accession negotiations in 2011. A majority of Croatian voters opted in favour of EU membership in a 2012 referendum.,[136] Croatia joined the European Union effective 1 July 2013.[137] Croatia was affected by the 2015 European migrant crisis when Hungary's closure of borders with Serbia pushed over 700,000 refugees and migrants to pass through Croatia on their way to other countries.[138]

On 19 October 2016, Andrej Plenković began serving as Croatian Prime Minister.[139] The most recent presidential elections, on 5 January 2020, elected Zoran Milanović as president.[140]

Geography

Croatia is situated in Central and Southeast Europe, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Hungary is to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast and Slovenia to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.[141] The Pelješac Bridge connects the exclave with mainland Croatia.

Satellite image

The territory covers 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), consisting of 56,414 square kilometres (21,782 square miles) of land and 128 square kilometres (49 square miles) of water. It is the world's 127th largest country.[142] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Dinaric Alps with the highest point of the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet) near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south[142] to the shore of the Adriatic Sea which makes up its entire southwest border. Insular Croatia consists of over a thousand islands and islets varying in size, 48 of which permanently inhabited. The largest islands are Cres and Krk,[142] each of them having an area of around 405 square kilometres (156 square miles).

Bora is a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, e.g. in the town of Senj
Karst spring of the Cetina river and Dinara Nature Park in the background, the newest and second largest Croatian nature park. Recognised in 2021[143]

The hilly northern parts of Hrvatsko Zagorje and the flat plains of Slavonia in the east which is part of the Pannonian Basin are traversed by major rivers such as Danube, Drava, Kupa, and the Sava. The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar in the extreme east and forms part of the border with Vojvodina. The central and southern regions near the Adriatic coastline and islands consist of low mountains and forested highlands. Natural resources found in quantities significant enough for production include oil, coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, and hydropower.[142] Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps.[144] Croatia hosts deep caves, 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft), 14 deeper than 500 m (1,640.42 ft) and three deeper than 1,000 m (3,280.84 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes, a system of 16 lakes with waterfalls connecting them over dolomite and limestone cascades. The lakes are renowned for their distinctive colours, ranging from turquoise to mint green, grey or blue.[145]

Climate

Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) in January and 18 °C (64 °F) in July. The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar featuring a snowy, forested climate at elevations above 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The warmest areas are at the Adriatic coast and especially in its immediate hinterland characterised by Mediterranean climate, as the sea moderates temperature highs. Consequently, temperature peaks are more pronounced in continental areas. The lowest temperature of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) was recorded on 3 February 1919 in Čakovec, and the highest temperature of 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) was recorded on 4 August 1981 in Ploče.[146][147]

Mean annual precipitation ranges between 600 millimetres (24 inches) and 3,500 millimetres (140 inches) depending on geographic region and climate type. The least precipitation is recorded in the outer islands (Biševo, Lastovo, Svetac, Vis) and the eastern parts of Slavonia. However, in the latter case, rain occurs mostly during the growing season. The maximum precipitation levels are observed on the Dinara mountain range and in Gorski Kotar.[146]

Prevailing winds in the interior are light to moderate northeast or southwest, and in the coastal area, prevailing winds are determined by local features. Higher wind velocities are more often recorded in cooler months along the coast, generally as the cool northeasterly bura or less frequently as the warm southerly jugo. The sunniest parts are the outer islands, Hvar and Korčula, where more than 2700 hours of sunshine are recorded per year, followed by the middle and southern Adriatic Sea area in general, and northern Adriatic coast, all with more than 2000 hours of sunshine per year.[148]

Biodiversity

Croatia can be subdivided into ecoregions based on climate and geomorphology. The country is one of the richest in Europe in terms of biodiversity.[149][150] Croatia has four types of biogeographical regions—the Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava and Danube, and Continental in the remaining areas. The most significant are karst habitats which include submerged karst, such as Zrmanja and Krka canyons and tufa barriers, as well as underground habitats. The country contains three ecoregions: Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, and Illyrian deciduous forests.[151]

The karst geology harbours approximately 7,000 caves and pits, some of which are the habitat of the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm. Forests are significantly present, as they cover 2,490,000 hectares (6,200,000 acres) representing 44% of Croatian land area. Other habitat types include wetlands, grasslands, bogs, fens, scrub habitats, coastal and marine habitats.[152]

In terms of phytogeography, Croatia is a part of the Boreal Kingdom and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides Croatia between three ecoregions—Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests.[153]

Croatia hosts 37,000 known plant and animal species, but their actual number is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000.[152] More than a thousand species are endemic, especially in Velebit and Biokovo mountains, Adriatic islands and karst rivers. Legislation protects 1,131 species.[152] The most serious threat is habitat loss and degradation. A further problem is presented by invasive alien species, especially Caulerpa taxifolia algae. Croatia had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.92/10, ranking it 113th of 172 countries.[154]

Invasive algae are regularly monitored and removed to protect benthic habitat. Indigenous cultivated plant strains and domesticated animal breeds are numerous. They include five breeds of horses, five of cattle, eight of sheep, two of pigs, and one poultry. Indigenous breeds include nine that are endangered or critically endangered.[152] Croatia has 444 protected areas, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in the preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000 network.[152]

Governance

St. Mark's Square, ZagrebLeft-to-right: Banski dvori complex, official residence of the Croatian Government, St. Mark's Church and Croatian Parliament

The Republic of Croatia is a unitary, constitutional state using a parliamentary system. Government powers in Croatia are legislative, executive, and judiciary powers.[155]

The President of the Republic (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike) is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to two terms. In addition to serving as commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the parliament and has some influence on foreign policy.[155]

The Government is headed by the Prime Minister, who has four deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in charge of particular sectors.[156] As the executive branch, it is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, enforcing the laws, and guiding foreign and internal policies. The Government is seated at Banski dvori in Zagreb.[155]

Law and judicial system

A unicameral parliament (Sabor) holds legislative power. The number of Sabor members can vary from 100 to 160. They are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. Legislative sessions take place from 15 January to 15 July, and from 15 September to 15 December annually.[157] The two largest political parties in Croatia are the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia.[158]

Croatia has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving as implementers and not creators of law. Its development was largely influenced by German and Austrian legal systems. Croatian law is divided into two principal areas—private and public law. Before EU accession negotiations were completed, Croatian legislation had been fully harmonised with the Community acquis.[159]

The main national courts are the Constitutional Court, which oversees violations of the Constitution, and the Supreme Court, which is the highest court of appeal. Administrative, Commercial, County, Misdemeanor, and Municipal courts handle cases in their respective domains.[160] Cases falling within judicial jurisdiction are in the first instance decided by a single professional judge, while appeals are deliberated in mixed tribunals of professional judges. Lay magistrates also participate in trials.[161] The State's Attorney Office is the judicial body constituted of public prosecutors empowered to instigate prosecution of perpetrators of offences.[162]

Law enforcement agencies are organised under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior which consist primarily of the national police force. Croatia's security service is the Security and Intelligence Agency (SOA).[163][164]

Foreign relations

President Zoran Milanović on NATO summit on 24 March 2022. The accession of Croatia to NATO took place in 2009

Croatia has established diplomatic relations with 194 countries.[165] supporting 57 embassies, 30 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions. 56 foreign embassies and 67 consulates operate in the country in addition to offices of international organisations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), International Organization for Migration (IOM), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and UNICEF.[166]

As of 2019, the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration employed 1,381[needs update] personnel and expended 765.295 million kunas (€101.17 million).[167] Stated aims of Croatian foreign policy include enhancing relations with neighbouring countries, developing international co-operation and promotion of the Croatian economy and Croatia itself.[168]

Croatia is a member of the European Union. As of 2021, Croatia had unsolved border issues with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.[169] Croatia is a member of NATO.[170][171] The country is preparing to join the Schengen Area[172] and the Eurozone, after joining ERM II on 10 July 2020.

Military

Croatian Air Force and US Navy aircraft participate in multinational training, 2002
Croatian Army Soldiers as members of Special Operations Force (SOF) during Exercise Trojan Footprint 22 near Udbina, Croatia

The Croatian Armed Forces (CAF) consist of the Air Force, Army, and Navy branches in addition to the Education and Training Command and Support Command. The CAF is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President. According to the constitution, the President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In case of immediate threat during wartime, he issues orders directly to the General Staff.[173]

Following the 1991–95 war, defence spending and CAF size began a constant decline. As of 2019[update], military spending was an estimated 1.68% of the country's GDP, 67th globally.[174] In 2005 the budget fell below the NATO-required 2% of GDP, down from the record high of 11.1% in 1994.[175] Traditionally relying on conscripts, the CAF went through a period of reforms focused on downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation in the years before accession to NATO in April 2009. According to a presidential decree issued in 2006, the CAF employed around 18,100 active duty military personnel, 3,000 civilians and 2,000 voluntary conscripts between 18 and 30 years old in peacetime.[173]

Compulsory conscription was abolished in January 2008.[142] Until 2008 military service was obligatory for men at age 18 and conscripts served six-month tours of duty, reduced in 2001 from the earlier scheme of nine months. Conscientious objectors could instead opt for eight months of civilian service.[176]

As of May 2019[update], the Croatian military had 72 members stationed in foreign countries as part of United Nations-led international peacekeeping forces.[177] As of 2019[update], 323 troops served the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan. Another 156 served with KFOR in Kosovo.[178][179]

Croatia has a military-industrial sector that exported around 493 million kunas (€65,176 million) worth of military equipment in 2020.[180] Croatian-made weapons and vehicles used by CAF include the standard sidearm HS2000 manufactured by HS Produkt and the M-84D battle tank designed by the Đuro Đaković factory. Uniforms and helmets worn by CAF soldiers are locally produced and marketed to other countries.[181]

Administrative divisions

Croatia was first divided into counties in the Middle Ages.[182] The divisions changed over time to reflect losses of territory to Ottoman conquest and subsequent liberation of the same territory, changes of the political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, and Istria. The traditional division of the country into counties was abolished in the 1920s when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the subsequent Kingdom of Yugoslavia introduced oblasts and banovinas respectively.[183]

Varaždin, capital of Croatia between 1767 and 1776, is the seat of Varaždin county; Pictured: Old Town fortress, one of 15 Croatia's sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list

Communist-ruled Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia, abolished earlier divisions and introduced municipalities, subdividing Croatia into approximately one hundred municipalities. Counties were reintroduced in 1992 legislation, significantly altered in terms of territory relative to the pre-1920s subdivisions. In 1918, the Transleithanian part was divided into eight counties with their seats in Bjelovar, Gospić, Ogulin, Osijek, Požega, Varaždin, Vukovar, and Zagreb.[184][185]

As of 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, the latter having the dual authority and legal status of a county and a city. County borders changed in some instances, last revised in 2006. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities.[186] Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division is performed in several tiers. NUTS 1 level considers the entire country in a single unit; three NUTS 2 regions come below that. Those are Northwest Croatia, Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia, and Adriatic Croatia. The latter encompasses the counties along the Adriatic coast. Northwest Croatia includes Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Međimurje, Varaždin, the city of Zagreb, and Zagreb counties and the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Brod-Posavina, Karlovac, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Sisak-Moslavina, Virovitica-Podravina, and Vukovar-Syrmia counties. Individual counties and the city of Zagreb also represent NUTS 3 level subdivision units in Croatia. The NUTS local administrative unit divisions are two-tiered. LAU 1 divisions match the counties and the city of Zagreb in effect making those the same as NUTS 3 units, while LAU 2 subdivisions correspond to cities and municipalities.[187]

County Seat Area (km2) Population
Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,652 102,295
Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043 130,782
Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,783 115,862
Istria Pazin 2,820 195,794
Karlovac Karlovac 3,622 112,596
Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,746 101,661
Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,224 120,942
Lika-Senj Gospić 5,350 42,893
Međimurje Čakovec 730 105,863
Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152 259,481
Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,845 64,420
Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,582 266,503
Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,939 96,624
Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,463 140,549
Split-Dalmatia Split 4,534 425,412
Varaždin Varaždin 1,261 160,264
Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,068 70,660
Vukovar-Syrmia Vukovar 2,448 144,438
Zadar Zadar 3,642 160,340
Zagreb County Zagreb 3,078 301,206
City of Zagreb Zagreb 641 769,944

Economy

Croatian counties by GDP (PPS) per capita, 2019
A proportional representation of Croatia exports, 2017

Croatia's economy qualifies as high-income.[188] International Monetary Fund data projected that Croatian nominal GDP reached $67,84 billion, or $17.398 per capita for 2021[189] while purchasing power parity GDP was $132,88  billion, or $32.942 per capita.[190] According to Eurostat, Croatian GDP per capita in PPS stood at 65% of the EU average in 2019.[191] Real GDP growth in 2021 was per cent.[192] The average net salary of a Croatian worker in October 2019 was 6,496 HRK per month (roughly 873 EUR), and the average gross salary was 8,813 HRK per month (roughly 1,185 EUR).[193] As of July 2019[update], the unemployment rate dropped to 7.2% from 9.6% in December 2018. The number of unemployed persons was 106.703. The unemployment rate between 1996 and 2018 averaged 17.38%, reaching an all-time high of 23.60% in January 2002 and a record low of 8.40% in September 2018.[194] In 2017, economic output was dominated by the service sector - accounting for 70.1% of GDP - followed by the industrial sector with 26.2% and agriculture accounting for 3.7%.[195]

According to 2017 data, 1.9% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 27.3% by industry and 70.8% in services.[195] Shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical, and timber industry dominate the industrial sector. In 2018, Croatian exports were valued at 108 billion kunas (€14.61 billion) with 176 billion kunas (€23.82 billion) worth of imports. Croatia's largest trading partner was the rest of the European Union, led by Germany, Italy, and Slovenia.[196]

As a result of the war, economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the tourism industry. From 1989 to 1993, the GDP fell 40.5%. The Croatian state still controls significant economic sectors, with government expenditures accounting for 40% of GDP.[197] A particular concern is a backlogged judiciary system, with inefficient public administration and corruption, upending land ownership. In the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index, published by Transparency International, the country ranked 60th.[198] At the end of June 2020, the national debt stood at 85,3% of GDP.[199]

Tourism

Dubrovnik is one of Croatia's most popular tourist destinations.
Zlatni Rat beach on the Island of Brač is one of the foremost spots of tourism in Croatia

Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector and accounts for up to 20% of GDP. Tourism income for 2019 was estimated to be €10.5 billion.[200] Its positive effects are felt throughout the economy, increasing retail business, and increasing seasonal employment. The industry is counted as an export business because foreign visitor spending significantly reduces the country's trade imbalance.[201] The tourist industry has rapidly grown, recording a fourfold rise in tourist numbers since independence, attracting more than 11 million visitors each year.[202] Germany, Slovenia, Austria, Italy, Poland and Croatia itself provide the most visitors.[203] Tourist stays averaged 4.7 days in 2019.[204]

Much of the tourist industry is concentrated along the coast. Opatija was the first holiday resort. It first became popular in the middle of the 19th century. By the 1890s, it had become one of the largest European health resorts.[205] Resorts sprang up along the coast and islands, offering services catering to mass tourism and various niche markets. The most significant are nautical tourism, supported by marinas with more than 16 thousand berths, cultural tourism relying on the appeal of medieval coastal cities and cultural events taking place during the summer. Inland areas offer agrotourism, mountain resorts, and spas. Zagreb is a significant destination, rivalling major coastal cities and resorts.[206]

Croatia has unpolluted marine areas with nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches.[207] Croatia ranks as the 23rd most popular tourist destination in the world.[208] About 15% of these visitors, or over one million per year, participate in naturism, for which Croatia is famous. It was the first European country to develop commercial naturist resorts.[209]

Infrastructure

Transport

The motorway network was largely built in the late 1990s and the 2000s (decade). As of December 2020, Croatia had completed 1,313.8 kilometres (816.4 miles) of motorways, connecting Zagreb to other regions and following various European routes and four Pan-European corridors.[210][211][212] The busiest motorways are the A1, connecting Zagreb to Split and the A3, passing east to west through northwest Croatia and Slavonia.[213]

A widespread network of state roads in Croatia acts as motorway feeder roads while connecting major settlements. The high quality and safety levels of the Croatian motorway network were tested and confirmed by EuroTAP and EuroTest programmes.[214][215]

Croatia has an extensive rail network spanning 2,722 kilometres (1,691 miles), including 984 kilometres (611 miles) of electrified railways and 254 kilometres (158 miles) of double track railways.[216] The most significant railways in Croatia are within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb.[210] Croatian Railways operates all rail services.[217]

Pelješac Bridge connects the peninsula of Pelješac and through it the southernmost part including Dubrovnik with the Croatian mainland
HŽ series 6112 manufactured by the Croatian company Končar Group, operated by Croatian Railways

The construction of 2.4-kilometre-long Pelješac Bridge, the biggest infrastructure project in Croatia connects the two halves of Dubrovnik-Neretva County and shortens the route from the West to the Pelješac peninsula and the islands of Korčula and Lastovo by more than 32 km. The construction of the Pelješac Bridge started in July 2018 after Croatian road operator Hrvatske ceste (HC) signed a 2.08 billion kuna deal for the works with a Chinese consortium led by China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC). The project is co-financed by the European Union with 357 million euro.

There are international airports in Dubrovnik, Osijek, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Zadar, and Zagreb.[218] The largest and busiest is Franjo Tuđman Airport in Zagreb.[219][better source needed] As of January 2011[update], Croatia complies with International Civil Aviation Organization aviation safety standards and the Federal Aviation Administration upgraded it to Category 1 rating.[220]

Ports

The busiest cargo seaport is the Port of Rijeka. The busiest passenger ports are Split and Zadar.[221][222] Many minor ports serve ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities with ferry lines to several cities in Italy.[223] The largest river port is Vukovar, located on the Danube, representing the nation's outlet to the Pan-European transport corridor VII.[210][224]

Energy

610 kilometres (380 miles) of crude oil pipelines serve Croatia, connecting the Rijeka oil terminal with refineries in Rijeka and Sisak, and several transhipment terminals. The system has a capacity of 20 million tonnes per year.[225] The natural gas transportation system comprises 2,113 kilometres (1,313 miles) of trunk and regional pipelines, and more than 300 associated structures, connecting production rigs, the Okoli natural gas storage facility, 27 end-users and 37 distribution systems.[226]

Croatian energy production covers 85% of nationwide natural gas and 19% of oil demand. In 2008, 47.6% of Croatia's primary energy production involved natural gas (47.7%), hydropower (25.4%), crude oil (18.0%), fuelwood (8.4%), and other renewable energy sources (0.5%). In 2009, net total electrical power production reached 12,725 GWh. Croatia imported 28.5% of its electric power energy needs.[141]

Krško Nuclear Power Plant supplies a large part of Croatian imports. 50% is owned by Hrvatska elektroprivreda, providing 15% of Croatia's electricity.[227]

Demographics

2011 Croatian population density by county in persons per km2.

With an estimated population of 4.13 million in 2019, Croatia ranks 127th by population in the world.[228] Its 2018 population density was 72,9 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Croatia one of the more sparsely populated European countries.[229] The overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 76.3 years in 2018.[195]

The total fertility rate of 1.41 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world, far below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 6.18 children rate in 1885.[195][230] Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate since 1991.[141] Croatia subsequently has one of the world's oldest populations, with an average age of 43.3 years.[231] The population rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million, with the exceptions of censuses taken in 1921 and 1948, i.e. following the world wars.[141] The natural growth rate is negative[142] with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s.[232] In recent years, the Croatian government has been pressured to increase permit quotas for foreign workers, reaching an all-time high of 68.100 in 2019.[233] In accordance with its immigration policy, Croatia is trying to entice emigrants to return.[234] From 2008 to 2018, Croatia's population dropped by 10%.[235]

The population decrease was greater a result of war for independence. The war displaced large numbers of the population and emigration increased. In 1991, in predominantly occupied areas, more than 400,000 Croats were either removed from their homes by Serb forces or fled the violence.[236] During the war's final days, about 150–200,000 Serbs fled before the arrival of Croatian forces during Operation Storm.[113][237] After the war, the number of displaced persons fell to about 250,000. The Croatian government cared for displaced persons via the social security system and the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees.[238] Most of the territories abandoned during the war were settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly from north-western Bosnia, while some displaced people returned to their homes.[239][240]

According to the 2013 United Nations report, 17.6% of Croatia's population were immigrants.[241] The majority of inhabitants are Croats (90.4%), followed by Serbs (4.4%), Bosniaks (0.73%), Italians (0.42%), Albanians (0.41%), Roma (0.40%), Hungarians (0.33%), Slovenes (0.25%), Czechs (0.22%), Montenegrins (0.11%), Slovaks (0.11%), Macedonians (0.10%), and others (2.12%).[4] Approximately 4 million Croats live abroad.[242]

Largest cities

 
  • v
  • t
  • e
Largest cities or towns in Croatia
Rank Name Counties Pop.
Zagreb
Zagreb
Split
Split
1 Zagreb Zagreb 790,017 Rijeka
Rijeka
Osijek
Osijek
2 Split Split-Dalmatia 178,102
3 Rijeka Primorje-Gorski Kotar 128,624
4 Osijek Osijek-Baranja 108,048
5 Zadar Zadar 75,062
6 Pula Istria 57,460
7 Slavonski Brod Brod-Posavina 59,141
8 Karlovac Karlovac 55,705
9 Varaždin Varaždin 46,946
10 Šibenik Šibenik-Knin 46,332

Religion

Religious believers according to the 2011 census

Croatia has no official religion. Freedom of religion is a Constitutional right that protects all religious communities as equal before the law and separated from the state.[244] According to the 2011 census, 91.36% of Croatians identify as Christian; of these, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 86.28% of the population, after which follows Eastern Orthodoxy (4.44%), Protestantism (0.34%), and other Christians (0.30%). The largest religion after Christianity is Islam (1.47%). 4.57% of the population describe themselves as non-religious.[245] In the Eurostat Eurobarometer Poll of 2010, 69% of the population responded that "they believe there is a God".[246] In a 2009 Gallup poll, 70% answered yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?"[247] However, only 24% of the population attends religious services regularly.[248]

Languages

Map of the Shtokavian, Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects in Croatia by municipality

Croatian is the official language of Croatia and became the 24th official language of the European Union upon its accession in 2013.[249][250] Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of the population consists of national minorities or where local enabling legislation applies. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian, and Slovak.[251][252] The following minority languages are also recognised: Albanian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, German, Hebrew, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Polish, Romanian, Istro-Romanian, Romani, Russian, Rusyn, Slovene, Turkish, and Ukrainian.[252]

The Baška tablet is the oldest Glagolitic monument in Croatia. It documents the donation of land gifted by Croatian King Dmitar Zvonimir to the Benedictine monastery of St Lucy

According to the 2011 Census, 95.6% of citizens declared Croatian as their native language, 1.2% declared Serbian as their native language, while no other language reaches more than 0.5%.[2] Croatian is a member of the South Slavic languages of Slavic languages group and is written using the Latin alphabet. There are three major dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, with standard Croatian based on the Shtokavian dialect. The Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects are distinguished from Shtokavian by their lexicon, phonology and syntax.[253]

Croatian replaced Latin as the official language of the Croatian government in the 19th century.[254] Following the Vienna Literary Agreement in 1850, the language and its Latin script underwent reforms to create an unified "Croatian or Serbian" or "Serbo-Croatian" standard, which under various names became the official language of Yugoslavia.[255] In SFR Yugoslavia, from 1972 to 1989, the language was constitutionally designated as the "Croatian literary language" and the "Croatian or Serbian language". It was the result of the resistance to "Serbo-Croatian" in the form of a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language and Croatian Spring.[256] Croats protect their language from foreign influences and are known for Croatian linguistic purism, as the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers. Croats reject loanwords in favor of Croatian counterparts.[257]

A 2011 survey revealed that 78% of Croats claim knowledge of at least one foreign language.[258] According to a 2005 EC survey, 49% of Croats speak English as the second language, 34% speak German, 14% speak Italian, and 10% speak French. Russian is spoken by 4%, and 2% of Croats speak Spanish. However several large municipalities support minority languages. A majority of Slovenes (59%) have some knowledge of Croatian.[259] The country is a part of various language-based international associations, most notably the European Union Language Association.[260]

Education

University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe (1669)

Literacy in Croatia stands at 99.2 per cent.[261] Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school.

Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. As of 2019, there are 2,103 elementary schools and 738 schools providing various forms of secondary education.[262] Primary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognised minorities in Croatia, where classes are held in Czech, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Serbian languages.[263]

There are 137 elementary and secondary level music and art schools, as well as 120 schools for disabled children and youth and 74 schools for adults.[264] Nationwide leaving exams (Croatian: državna matura) were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2009–2010. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Croatian language, mathematics, and a foreign language) and optional subjects and is a prerequisite for university education.[265]

Croatia has eight public universities and two private universities.[266] The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002.[267] The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating university in Southeast Europe.[268] There are also 15 polytechnics, of which two are private, and 30 higher education institutions, of which 27 are private.[266] In total, there are 55 institutions of higher education in Croatia, attended by more than 157 thousand students.[264]

There are 205 companies, government or education system institutions and non-profit organisations in Croatia pursuing scientific research and development of technology. Combined, they spent more than 3 billion kuna (€400 million) and employed 10,191 full-time research staff in 2008.[141] Among the scientific institutes operating in Croatia, the largest is the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb.[269] The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb is a learned society promoting language, culture, arts and science from its inception in 1866.[270] Croatia was ranked 42th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021[271]

The European Investment Bank provided digital infrastructure and equipment to around 150 primary and secondary schools in Croatia. Twenty of these schools got specialised assistance in the form of gear, software, and services to help them integrate the teaching and administrative operations.[272][273]

Healthcare

University Hospital Centre Zagreb is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb

Croatia has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian-Croatian Parliament Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen.[274] The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance. In 2017, annual healthcare related expenditures reached 22.0 billion kuna (€3.0 billion).[275] Healthcare expenditures comprise only 0.6% of private health insurance and public spending.[276] In 2017, Croatia spent around 6.6% of its GDP on healthcare.[277] In 2020, Croatia ranked 41st in the world in life expectancy with 76.0 years for men and 82.0 years for women, and it had a low infant mortality rate of 3.4 per 1,000 live births.[278]

There are hundreds of healthcare institutions in Croatia, including 75 hospitals, and 13 clinics with 23,049 beds. The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 6,642 medical doctors, including 4,773 specialists. There is total of 69,841 health workers. There are 119 emergency units in health centres, responding to more than a million calls.[citation needed] The principal cause of death in 2016 was cardiovascular disease at 39.7% for men and 50.1% for women, followed by tumours, at 32.5% for men and 23.4% for women.[279] In 2016 it was estimated that 37.0% of Croatians are smokers.[280] According to 2016 data, 24.40% of the Croatian adult population is obese.[281]

Culture

Historic centre of Trogir has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site since 1997[282]

Because of its geographical position, Croatia represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroads of influences from western culture and the east since the schism between the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, and also from Central Europe and Mediterranean culture.[283] The Illyrian movement was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th century proved crucial to the emancipation of Croatians and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to many historical figures.[53]

The Ministry of Culture is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural and natural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting the development of culture are undertaken at the local government level.[284] The UNESCO's World Heritage List includes ten sites in Croatia. The country is also rich with intangible culture and holds 15 of UNESCO's World's intangible culture masterpieces, ranking fourth in the world.[285] A global cultural contribution from Croatia is the necktie, derived from the cravat originally worn by the 17th-century Croatian mercenaries in France.[286][287]

In 2019, Croatia had 95 professional theatres, 30 professional children's theatres, and 51 amateur theatres visited by more than 2.27 million viewers per year. Professional theatres employ 1,195 artists. There are 42 professional orchestras, ensembles, and choirs, attracting an annual attendance of 297 thousand. There are 75 cinemas with 166 screens and attendance of 5.026 million.[288] Croatia has 222 museums, visited by more than 2.71 million people in 2016. Furthermore, there are 1,768 libraries, containing 26.8 million volumes, and 19 state archives.[289] The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers and the industry's centrepiece event—Interliber exhibition held annually at Zagreb Fair.[290]

Arts, literature, and music

Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and the central regions, architecture found along coasts of Dalmatia and Istria exhibits Venetian influence.[291] Squares named after culture heroes, parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of Croatian towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Osijek (Tvrđa), Varaždin, and Karlovac.[292][293] The subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture.[294] The architecture is the Mediterranean with a Venetian and Renaissance influence in major coastal urban areas exemplified in works of Juraj Dalmatinac and Nicolas of Florence such as the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik. The oldest preserved examples of Croatian architecture are the 9th-century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Church of St. Donatus in Zadar.[295][296]

Historical nucleus of Split with the 4th-century Diocletian's Palace was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979

Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks, there is a history of artists in Croatia reaching the Middle Ages. In that period the stone portal of the Trogir Cathedral was made by Radovan, representing the most important monument of Romanesque sculpture from Medieval Croatia. The Renaissance had the greatest impact on the Adriatic Sea coast since the remainder was embroiled in the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. With the waning of the Ottoman Empire, art flourished during the Baroque and Rococo. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Croatian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer.[297] Croatian artists of the period achieving renown were Vlaho Bukovac, Ivan Meštrović, and Ivan Generalić.[295][298]

Croatian music varies from classical operas to modern day rock. Vatroslav Lisinski created the country's first Opera, Love and Malice, in 1846. Ivan Zajc composed more than a thousand pieces of music, including masses and oratorios. Pianist Ivo Pogorelić has performed across the world.[298]

The Baška tablet, a stone inscribed with the glagolitic alphabet found on the Krk island and dated to circa 1100, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Croatian.[299] The beginning of more vigorous development of Croatian literature is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Marulić. Besides Marulić, Renaissance playwright Marin Držić, Baroque poet Ivan Gundulić, Croatian national revival poet Ivan Mažuranić, novelist, playwright, and poet August Šenoa, children's writer Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, writer and journalist Marija Jurić Zagorka, poet and writer Antun Gustav Matoš, poet Antun Branko Šimić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Krleža, poet Tin Ujević and novelist, and short story writer Ivo Andrić are often cited as the greatest figures in Croatian literature.[300][301]

Media

In Croatia, the Constitution guarantees the freedom of the press and the freedom of speech.[302] Croatia ranked 64th in the 2019 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders which noted that journalists who investigate corruption, organised crime or war crimes face challenges and that the Government was trying to influence the public broadcaster HRT's editorial policies.[303] In its 2019 Freedom in the World report, the Freedom House classified freedoms of press and speech in Croatia as generally free from political interference and manipulation, noting that journalists still face threats and occasional attacks.[304] The state-owned news agency HINA runs a wire service in Croatian and English on politics, economics, society, and culture.[305]

As of January 2021[update], there are thirteen nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT) operating four, RTL Televizija three, and Nova TV operating two channels, and the Croatian Olympic Committee, Kapital Net d.o.o., and Author d.o.o. companies operate the remaining three.[306] Also, there are 21 regional or local DVB-T television channels.[307] The HRT is also broadcasting a satellite TV channel.[308] In 2020, there were 155 radio stations and 27 TV stations in Croatia.[309][310] Cable television and IPTV networks are gaining ground. Cable television already serves 450 thousand people, around 10% of the total population of the country.[311][312]

Radio Zagreb, now a part of Croatian Radiotelevision, was the first public radio station in Southeast Europe.[313]

In 2010, 314 newspapers and 2,678 magazines were published in Croatia.[141] The print media market is dominated by the Croatian-owned Hanza Media and Austrian-owned Styria Media Group who publish their flagship dailies Jutarnji list, Večernji list and 24sata. Other influential newspapers are Novi list and Slobodna Dalmacija.[314][315] In 2020, 24sata was the most widely circulated daily newspaper, followed by Večernji list and Jutarnji list.[316][317]

Croatia's film industry is small and heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Ministry of Culture with films often being co-produced by HRT.[318][319] Croatian cinema produces between five and ten feature films per year.[320] Pula Film Festival, the national film awards event held annually in Pula, is the most prestigious film event featuring national and international productions.[321] Animafest Zagreb, founded in 1972, is the prestigious annual film festival dedicated to the animated film. The first greatest accomplishment by Croatian filmmakers was achieved by Dušan Vukotić when he won the 1961 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Ersatz (Croatian: Surogat).[322] Croatian film producer Branko Lustig won the Academy Awards for Best Picture for Schindler's List and Gladiator.[323]

Cuisine

Teran wine from Istria region

Croatian traditional cuisine varies from one region to another. Dalmatia and Istria have culinary influences of Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines which prominently feature various seafood, cooked vegetables and pasta, and condiments such as olive oil and garlic. Austrian, Hungarian, and Turkish culinary styles influenced continental cuisine. In that area, meats, freshwater fish, and vegetable dishes are predominant.[324]

There are two distinct wine-producing regions in Croatia. The continental in the northeast of the country, especially Slavonia, produces premium wines, particularly whites. Along the north coast, Istrian and Krk wines are similar to those in neighbouring Italy, while further south in Dalmatia, Mediterranean-style red wines are the norm.[324] Annual production of wine exceeds 140 million litres.[141] Croatia was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive beer production and consumption started.[325] The annual consumption of beer in 2020 was 78.7 litres per capita which placed Croatia in 15th place among the world's countries.[326]

Sports

There are more than 400,000 active sportspeople in Croatia.[327] Out of that number, 277,000 are members of sports associations and nearly 4,000 are chess members and contract bridge associations.[141] Association football is the most popular sport. The Croatian Football Federation (Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association.[328] The Prva HNL football league attracts the highest average attendance of any professional sports league. In season 2010–11, it attracted 458,746 spectators.[329]

Croatia national football team came in second at the 2018 World Cup in Russia

Croatian athletes competing at international events since Croatian independence in 1991 won 44 Olympic medals, including 15 gold medals.[330] Also, Croatian athletes won 16 gold medals at world championships, including four in athletics at the World Championships in Athletics. In tennis, Croatia won Davis Cup in 2005 and 2018. Croatia's most successful male players Goran Ivanišević and Marin Čilić have both won Grand Slam titles and have got into the top 3 of the ATP rankings. Iva Majoli became the first Croatian female player to win the French Open when she won it in 1997. The Croatian national football team came in third in 1998 and second in the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Croatia hosted several major sports competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games, and several European Championships.

The governing sports authority is the Croatian Olympic Committee (Croatian: Hrvatski olimpijski odbor), founded on 10 September 1991 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee since 17 January 1992, in time to permit the Croatian athletes to appear at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France representing the newly independent nation for the first time at the Olympic Games.[331]

See also

  • flagCroatia portal

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ In the recognised minority languages of Croatia and the most spoken second languages:
    • Czech: Chorvatská republika
    • German: Republik Kroatien
    • French: République de Croatie
    • Hungarian: Horvát Köztársaság
    • Italian: Repubblica di Croazia
    • Rusyn: Републіка Хорватія
    • Serbian: Република Хрватска
    • Slovak: Chorvátska republika
    • Slovene: Republika Hrvaška
    • Ukrainian: Респу́бліка Хорва́тія
  2. ^ /ˈzɑːɡrɛb/ (listen), ZAG-reb, ZAH-greb, zah-GREB; Croatian pronunciation: [zǎːɡreb] (listen)
  3. ^ Apart from Croatian, counties have official regional languages that are used for official government business and commercially. In Istria County a minority is Italian-speaking[1][2] while select counties bordering Serbia speak standard Serbian.[3] Other notable—albeit significantly less-present—minority languages in Croatia include: Czech, Hungarian, and Slovak.
  4. ^ The writing system of Croatia is legally protected by the Croatian Parliament. Efforts to recognise minority scripts, pursuant to international law, on a local level, have been met with nationalist opposition.
  5. ^ IPA transcription of "Republika Hrvatska": (Croatian pronunciation: [ˈrepǔblika ˈxř̩ʋaːtskaː]).

Citations

  1. ^ "Europska povelja o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (in Croatian). Ministry of Justice and Public Administration (Croatia). 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Population by Mother Tongue, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  3. ^ "Is Serbo-Croatian a language?". The Economist. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  5. ^ "Zakon o blagdanima, spomendanima i neradnim danima u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Law of Holidays, Memorial Days and Non-Working Days in the Republic of Croatia]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 15 November 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  6. ^ "Census of population, households and dwellings in 2021 - First results". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 14 January 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  7. ^ "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  8. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
  9. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  10. ^ Human Development Report 2021-22: Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a Transforming World (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. pp. 272–276. ISBN 978-9-211-26451-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  11. ^ "Hrvatski sabor – Povijest". Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  12. ^ Gluhak, Alemko (1993). Hrvatski etimološki rječnik [Croatian Etymological Dictionary] (in Croatian). August Cesarec. ISBN 953-162-000-8.
  13. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2019), "Ime Hrvata" [The Name of Croats], Jezik (Croatian Philological Society) (in Croatian), Zagreb, 66 (3): 81–97
  14. ^ Fučić, Branko (September 1971). "Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi" [The Oldest Croatian Glagolitic Inscriptions]. Slovo (in Croatian). Old Church Slavonic Institute. 21: 227–254. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  15. ^ "Kulturna kronika: Dvanaest hrvatskih stoljeća". Vijenac (in Croatian). Zagreb: Matica hrvatska (291). 28 April 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  16. ^ a b Mužić 2007, pp. 195–198.
  17. ^ Mužić 2007, p. 27.
  18. ^ Mužić 2007, p. 171.
  19. ^ Salopek, Igor (December 2010). "Krapina Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information". Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica. Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture. 8 (2): 197–202. ISSN 1334-4366. PMID 21682056. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  20. ^ Težak-Gregl, Tihomila (April 2008). "Study of the Neolithic and Eneolithic as reflected in articles published over the 50 years of the journal Opuscula archaeologica". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 30 (1): 93–122. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  21. ^ Balen, Jacqueline (December 2005). "The Kostolac horizon at Vučedol". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 29 (1): 25–40. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  22. ^ Težak-Gregl, Tihomila (December 2003). "Prilog poznavanju neolitičkih obrednih predmeta u neolitiku sjeverne Hrvatske" [A Contribution to Understanding Neolithic Ritual Objects in the Northern Croatia Neolithic]. Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog Zavoda (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 27 (1): 43–48. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  23. ^ Potrebica, Hrvoje; Dizdar, Marko (July 2002). "Prilog poznavanju naseljenosti Vinkovaca i okolice u starijem željeznom dobu" [A Contribution to Understanding Continuous Habitation of Vinkovci and its Surroundings in the Early Iron Age]. Prilozi Instituta Za Arheologiju U Zagrebu (in Croatian). Institut za arheologiju. 19 (1): 79–100. ISSN 1330-0644. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  24. ^ Wilkes, John (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 15 October 2011. ... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ...
  25. ^ Wilkes, John (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9. Retrieved 3 April 2012. The third Greek colony known in this central sector of the Dalmatian coast was Issa, on the north side of the island Vis.
  26. ^ Gibbon, Edward; John Bagnell Bury; Boorstin, Daniel J. (1995). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Modern Library. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-679-60148-7. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  27. ^ J. B. Bury (1923). History of the later Roman empire from the death of Theodosius I. to the death of Justinian. Macmillan Publishers. p. 408. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  28. ^ Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic. Trübner. pp. 218–219. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  29. ^ Heršak, Emil; Nikšić, Boris (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" [Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements)]. Migracijske i Etničke Teme (in Croatian). Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies. 23 (3): 251–268. ISSN 1333-2546.
  30. ^ Katičić, Radoslav (1989). "IVAN MUŽIĆ O PODRIJETLU HRVATA". Starohrvatska Prosvjeta (in Croatian). III (19): 243–270. ISSN 0351-4536.
  31. ^ Goldstein 1999, p. 13.
  32. ^ Birin, Ante (January 2015). "Pregled političke povijesti Hrvata u ranome srednjem vijeku". Nova Zraka U Europskom Svjetlu – Hrvatske Zemlje U Ranome Srednjem Vijeku (Oko 550 – Oko 1150): 40 – via Academia.edu.
  33. ^ Mužić 2007, pp. 249–293.
  34. ^ Dzino, Danijel (2010). Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia. BRILL. pp. 175, 179–182. ISBN 9789004186460.
  35. ^ Belošević, Janko (2000). "Razvoj i osnovne značajke starohrvatskih grobalja horizonta 7.-9. stoljeća na povijesnim prostorima Hrvata". Radovi (in Croatian). 39 (26): 71–97. doi:10.15291/radovipov.2231.
  36. ^ Fabijanić, Tomislav (2013). "14C date from early Christian basilica gemina in Podvršje (Croatia) in the context of Slavic settlement on the eastern Adriatic coast". The early Slavic settlement of Central Europe in the light of new dating evidence. Wroclaw: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. pp. 251–260. ISBN 978-83-63760-10-6.
  37. ^ Bekić, Luka (2016). Rani srednji vijek između Panonije i Jadrana: ranoslavenski keramički i ostali arheološki nalazi od 6. do 8. stoljeća [Early medieval between Pannonia and the Adriatic: early Slavic ceramic and other archaeological finds from the sixth to eighth century] (in Croatian and English). Pula: Arheološki muzej Istre. pp. 101, 119, 123, 138–140, 157–162, 173–174, 177–179. ISBN 978-953-8082-01-6.
  38. ^ Mužić 2007, pp. 157–160.
  39. ^ Mužić 2007, pp. 169–170.
  40. ^ Ivandija, Antun (April 1968). "Pokrštenje Hrvata prema najnovijim znanstvenim rezultatima" [Christianization of Croats according to the most recent scientific results]. Bogoslovska Smotra (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Catholic Faculty of Theology. 37 (3–4): 440–444. ISSN 0352-3101.
  41. ^ Posavec, Vladimir (March 1998). "Povijesni zemljovidi i granice Hrvatske u Tomislavovo doba" [Historical maps and borders of Croatia in age of Tomislav]. Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest (in Croatian). 30 (1): 281–290. ISSN 0353-295X. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  42. ^ Margetić, Lujo (January 1997). "Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae u doba Stjepana II" [Regnum Croatiae et Dalmatiae in age of Stjepan II]. Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest (in Croatian). 29 (1): 11–20. ISSN 0353-295X. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  43. ^ a b Heka, Ladislav (October 2008). "Hrvatsko-ugarski odnosi od sredinjega vijeka do nagodbe iz 1868. s posebnim osvrtom na pitanja Slavonije" [Croatian-Hungarian relations from the Middle Ages to the Compromise of 1868, with a special survey of the Slavonian issue]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Hrvatski institut za povijest – Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje. 8 (1): 152–173. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  44. ^ a b c d "Povijest saborovanja" [History of parliamentarism] (in Croatian). Sabor. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  45. ^ Font 2005, p. 17.
  46. ^ a b c d e Frucht 2005, pp. 422–423.
  47. ^ Lane 1973, p. 409.
  48. ^ "Povijest Gradišćanskih Hrvatov" [History of Burgenland Croats] (in Croatian). Croatian Cultural Association in Burgenland. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  49. ^ Valentić, Mirko (30 October 1990). "TURSKI RATOVI i HRVATSKA DIJASPORA u XVI. STOLJEĆU". Senjski Zbornik: Prilozi Za Geografiju, Etnologiju, Gospodarstvo, Povijest I Kulturu (in Croatian). 17 (1): 45–60. ISSN 0582-673X.
  50. ^ "Povijest saborovanja". Hrvatski sabor (in Croatian). Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  51. ^ Adkins & Adkins 2008, pp. 359–362.
  52. ^ Nicolson, Harold (2000). The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812–1822. Grove Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8021-3744-9. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  53. ^ a b Stančić, Nikša (February 2009). "Hrvatski narodni preporod – ciljevi i ostvarenja" [Croatian National Revival – goals and achievements]. Cris: Časopis Povijesnog društva Križevci (in Croatian). 10 (1): 6–17. ISSN 1332-2567. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  54. ^ Čuvalo, Ante (December 2008). "Josip Jelačić – Ban of Croatia". Review of Croatian History. Croatian Institute of History. 4 (1): 13–27. ISSN 1845-4380. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  55. ^ "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary". H-net.org. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  56. ^ Heka, Ladislav (December 2007). "Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba u zrcalu tiska" [Croatian-Hungarian compromise in light of press clips]. Zbornik Pravnog Fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci (in Croatian). University of Rijeka. 28 (2): 931–971. ISSN 1330-349X. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  57. ^ Dubravica, Branko (January 2002). "Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871–1886" [Political and territorial division and scope of civilian Croatia in the period of unification with the Croatian military frontier 1871–1886]. Politička Misao (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences. 38 (3): 159–172. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  58. ^ Polatschek, Max (1989). Franz Ferdinand: Europas verlorene Hoffnung (in German). Amalthea. p. 231. ISBN 978-3-85002-284-2. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  59. ^ Tucker, Spencer; Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1286. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2.
  60. ^ "Parlamentarni izbori u Brodskom kotaru 1923. godine" [Parliamentary Elections in the Brod District in 1932]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History – Slavonia, Syrmium and Baranya history branch. 3 (1): 452–470. November 2003. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  61. ^ Begonja, Zlatko (November 2009). "Ivan Pernar o hrvatsko-srpskim odnosima nakon atentata u Beogradu 1928. godine" [Ivan Pernar on Croatian-Serbian relations after 1928 Belgrade assassination]. Radovi Zavoda Za Povijesne Znanosti HAZU U Zadru (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (51): 203–218. ISSN 1330-0474. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  62. ^ Job, Cvijeto (2002). Yugoslavia's ruin: the bloody lessons of nationalism, a patriot's warning. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7425-1784-4. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  63. ^ Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, pp. 121–123.
  64. ^ Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, pp. 153–156.
  65. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 337.
  66. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 272.
  67. ^ a b Klemenčič & Žagar 2004, p. 184.
  68. ^ a b "koncentracijski logori". Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  69. ^ Goldstein 1999, p. 138.
  70. ^ Hoare, Marko Attila (1 December 2003). "Genocide in the former Yugoslavia: a critique of left revisionism's denial (full version)". Journal of Genocide Research. 5 (4): 543–563. doi:10.1080/1462352032000149495. ISSN 1462-3528. S2CID 145169670.
  71. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 744.
  72. ^ Kozlica, Ivan (2012). Krvava Cetina [Bloody Cetina] (in Croatian). Zagreb: Hrvatski centar za ratne žrtve. p. 155. ISBN 978-953-57409-0-2.
  73. ^ Predoević, Petra (2007). "Operacija Braunschweig", Klepsidra. Rijeka: Udruga studenata povijesti "Malleus". pp. 105–129.
  74. ^ Dragutin Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske, Naklada Pavičić, Zagreb, 2007. ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2, str. 441–442.
  75. ^ Pavličević, Dragutin (2007). Povijest Hrvatske. Naklada Pavičić. pp. 441–442. ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2.
  76. ^ Vipotnik, Matea (22 June 2011). "Josipović: Antifašizam je duhovni otac Domovinskog rata" [Josipović: Anti-Fascism is a Spiritual Forerunner of the Croatian War of Independence]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  77. ^ a b Hoare 2011, p. 207. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHoare2011 (help)
  78. ^ Hoare 2002, p. 30. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHoare2002 (help)
  79. ^ Karakaš Obradov Marica (December 2008). "Saveznički zračni napadi na Split i okolicu i djelovanje Narodne zaštite u Splitu tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata" [Allied aerial attacks on Split and its surrounding and Civil Guard activity in Split during the World War II]. Historijski Zbornik (in Croatian). Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu. 61 (2): 323–349. ISSN 0351-2193. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  80. ^ C.W. Bracewell; John R. Lampe (2012). "History of Croatia, World War II". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  81. ^ Goldstein 1999, p. 158.
  82. ^ Maurović, Marko (May 2004). "Josip protiv Josifa" [Josip vs. Iosif]. Pro Tempore – Časopis Studenata Povijesti (in Croatian). Klub studenata povijesti ISHA (1): 73–83. ISSN 1334-8302. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  83. ^ "Predsjednik Sabora Luka Bebić na obilježavanju 64. obljetnice pobjede nad fašizmom i 65. obljetnice trećeg zasjedanja ZAVNOH-a u Topuskom" [Speaker of the Parliament, Luka Bebić, at celebration of the 64th anniversary of the victory over fascism and the 65th anniversary of the 3rd session of the ZAVNOH session in Topusko] (in Croatian). Sabor. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  84. ^ Žerjavić 1995, p. 551. sfn error: no target: CITEREFŽerjavić1995 (help)
  85. ^ Žerjavić 1992, p. 159.
  86. ^ Kočović 1985, p. 173.
  87. ^ Žerjavić 1993b, pp. 640–641.
  88. ^ Kočović 1985, p. 126.
  89. ^ Geiger 2012, pp. 117–118.
  90. ^ Šute, Ivica (April 1999). "Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika – Građa za povijest Deklaracije" [Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language – Declaration History Articles]. Radovi Zavoda Za Hrvatsku Povijest (in Croatian). 31 (1): 317–318. ISSN 0353-295X.
  91. ^ Vurušić, Vlado (6 August 2009). "Heroina Hrvatskog proljeća" [Heroine of the Croatian Spring]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  92. ^ Rich, Roland (1993). "Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union". European Journal of International Law. 4 (1): 36–65. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a035834. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  93. ^ Frucht 2005, p. 433.
  94. ^ "Leaders of a Republic in Yugoslavia Resign". The New York Times. Reuters. 12 January 1989. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  95. ^ Pauković, Davor (1 June 2008). "Posljednji kongres Saveza komunista Jugoslavije: uzroci, tijek i posljedice raspada" [Last Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia: Causes, Consequences and Course of Dissolution]. Časopis za Suvremenu Povijest (in Croatian). Centar za politološka istraživanja. 1 (1): 21–33. ISSN 1847-2397. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  96. ^ Magas, Branka (13 December 1999). "Obituary: Franjo Tudjman". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  97. ^ Sudetic, Chuck (2 October 1990). "Croatia's Serbs Declare Their Autonomy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  98. ^ Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Routledge. 1998. pp. 272–278. ISBN 978-1-85743-058-5. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  99. ^ Sudetic, Chuck (26 June 1991). "2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  100. ^ "Ceremonial session of the Croatian Parliament on the occasion of the Day of Independence of the Republic of Croatia". Official web site of the Croatian Parliament. Sabor. 7 October 2004. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  101. ^ Sudetic, Chuck (4 November 1991). "Army Rushes to Take a Croatian Town". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  102. ^ "Croatia Clashes Rise; Mediators Pessimistic". The New York Times. 19 December 1991. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  103. ^ Powers, Charles T. (1 August 1991). "Serbian Forces Press Fight for Major Chunk of Croatia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  104. ^ "Utjecaj srbijanske agresije na stanovništvo Hrvatske". Index.hr. 11 December 2003. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  105. ^ "SUMMARY OF JUDGEMENT FOR MILAN MARTIĆ". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  106. ^ Goldstein 1999, p. 233.
  107. ^ Bassiouni, Mahmoud Cherif; Manikas, Peter (1996). The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Transnational Publishers. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-57105-004-5.
  108. ^ Beverly 1996, p. 46. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBeverly1996 (help)
  109. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (24 December 1991). "Slovenia and Croatia Get Bonn's Nod". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  110. ^ Montgomery, Paul L. (23 May 1992). "3 Ex-Yugoslav Republics Are Accepted into U.N." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  111. ^ Murphy, Dean E. (8 August 1995). "Croats Declare Victory, End Blitz". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  112. ^ "Officials Issue Messages for Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day". www.total-croatia-news.com. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  113. ^ a b Prodger, Matt (5 August 2005). "Evicted Serbs remember Storm". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
  114. ^ "Croatia marks 25 years since war with tolerance message". AlJazeera. 5 August 2020.
  115. ^ Janine Natalya Clark (2014). International Trials and Reconciliation: Assessing the Impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. London: Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-31797-475-8.
  116. ^ Hedges, Chris (16 January 1998). "An Ethnic Morass Is Returned to Croatia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  117. ^ "Presidents apologise over Croatian war". BBC News. BBC. 10 September 2003. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  118. ^ "Serbia to respond to Croatian genocide charges with countersuit at ICJ". SETimes.com. Southeast European Times. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  119. ^ "UN to hear Croatia genocide claim against Serbia". Tehran Times. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  120. ^ Puljiz, Vlado; Bežovan, Gojko; Matković, Teo; Šućur, dr Zoran; Zrinščak, Siniša (2008). Socijalna politika Hrvatske (in Croatian). Zagreb: Pravni fakultet u Zagrebu. pp. 43–52. ISBN 978-953-97320-9-5.
  121. ^ "History and Development of Croatian Constitutional Judicature – Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia". www.usud.hr.
  122. ^ "Partnerstvo za mir – Hrvatska enciklopedija". www.enciklopedija.hr.
  123. ^ "MVEP • Svjetska trgovinska organizacija (WTO)". www.mvep.hr.
  124. ^ "Kronologija: Težak put od priznanja do kucanja na vrata EU – Jutarnji List". www.jutarnji.hr. 2 October 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  125. ^ "Kada je i kome Republika Hrvatska podnijela zahtjev za članstvo u Europskoj uniji?". uprava.gov.hr.
  126. ^ "Kako je izgledao put Republike Hrvatske ka punopravnom članstvu u Europskoj uniji?". uprava.gov.hr. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  127. ^ "Evo kako je izgledao hrvatski put prema EU!". Dnevnik.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  128. ^ "EU closes accession negotiations with Croatia". European Commission. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  129. ^ "Croatia signs EU accession treaty". European Union. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  130. ^ "EU stalls over talks with Croatia". BBC News. 10 March 2005. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  131. ^ "Slovenia unblocks Croatian EU bid". BBC News. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  132. ^ Goldstein, Ivo. Povijest Hrvatske 1945–2011. 3. svezak. EPH Media d.o.o.
  133. ^ "Membership of the Republic of Croatia in the UN Security Council 2008–2009". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  134. ^ "Hrvatska postala članica NATO saveza". Dnevnik.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  135. ^ "Et tu, Zagreb?". The Economist. 6 March 2011.
  136. ^ "Croatia voters back EU membership". BBC News. 1 June 2018.
  137. ^ "Croatia celebrates on joining EU". BBC News. 1 July 2013.
  138. ^ "Šenada Šelo Šabić, Croatia's response to the refugee crisis, European Expression, Issue 100, 2016" (PDF).
  139. ^ "Andrej Plenković – O meni". www.andrejplenkovic.hr. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  140. ^ "Održana svečanost prisege predsjednika Republike Hrvatske Zorana Milanovića". Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske – Zoran Milanović (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  141. ^ a b c d e f g h "2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  142. ^ a b c d e f "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  143. ^ "Dinara has become the new Nature Park in Croatia - Blog - LiveCamCroatia, Explore Croatia". Livecamcroatia.com. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  144. ^ Matas, Mate (18 December 2006). "Raširenost krša u Hrvatskoj" [Presence of Karst in Croatia]. geografija.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  145. ^ "The best national parks of Europe". BBC. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  146. ^ a b Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015, p. 42.
  147. ^ "Najviša izmjerena temperatura zraka u Hrvatskoj za razdoblje od kada postoje meteorološka motrenja". Klima.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  148. ^ Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015, p. 43.
  149. ^ "Biodiversity-rich Croatia becomes 33rd full EEA member country — European Environment Agency". www.eea.europa.eu. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  150. ^ "EU 2020 HR". eu2020.hr. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  151. ^ Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hedao, Prashant; Noss, Reed; Hansen, Matt; Locke, Harvey; Ellis, Erle C; Jones, Benjamin; Barber, Charles Victor; Hayes, Randy; Kormos, Cyril; Martin, Vance; Crist, Eileen; Sechrest, Wes; Price, Lori; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Weeden, Don; Suckling, Kierán; Davis, Crystal; Sizer, Nigel; Moore, Rebecca; Thau, David; Birch, Tanya; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Tyukavina, Alexandra; de Souza, Nadia; Pintea, Lilian; Brito, José C.; Llewellyn, Othman A.; Miller, Anthony G.; Patzelt, Annette; Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Timberlake, Jonathan; Klöser, Heinz; Shennan-Farpón, Yara; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars; Voge, Maianna; Al-Shammari, Khalaf F.; Saleem, Muhammad (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  152. ^ a b c d e Radović, Jasminka; Čivić, Kristijan; Topić, Ramona, eds. (2006). Biodiversity of Croatia (PDF). State Institute for Nature Protection, Ministry of Culture (Croatia). ISBN 953-7169-20-0. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  153. ^ "Venue". 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  154. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  155. ^ a b c "Political Structure". Government of Croatia. 6 May 2007. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  156. ^ "Members of the Government". Government of Croatia. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  157. ^ "About the Parliament". Sabor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  158. ^ "Members of the 6th Parliament". Sabor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  159. ^ "Overview of EU–Croatia relations". Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Croatia. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  160. ^ "Ustavne odredbe" [Provisions of the Constitution] (in Croatian). Croatian Supreme Court. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  161. ^ "Zakon o sudovima". narodne-novine.nn.hr.
  162. ^ "Državno odvjetništvo Republike Hrvatske". www.dorh.hr.
  163. ^ "SOA – Security-intelligence system of the Republic of Croatia". www.soa.hr. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  164. ^ Graaff, Bob de; Nyce, James M. (2 August 2016). Handbook of European Intelligence Cultures. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4422-4942-4.
  165. ^ "MVEP • Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". www.mvep.hr. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  166. ^ "MVEP • Diplomatski protokol". www.mvep.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  167. ^ "MVEP • Godišnje financijsko izvješće za 2019. godinu". www.mvep.hr. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  168. ^ "Foreign Policy Aims". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  169. ^ "Overview of Croatia's Border Disputes with BiH, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Liberland". total-croatia-news.com. 22 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  170. ^ Steven Lee Myers (5 April 2008). "Bush Champions Expansive Mission for NATO". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  171. ^ "Nato welcomes Albania and Croatia". BBC News. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  172. ^ Stojan de Prato (4 February 2011). "Karamarko: Granični nadzor prema EU ukidamo 2015" [Karamarko: Border control towards the EU shall be abolished in 2015]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  173. ^ a b "Chain of Command in the CAF". Croatian Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  174. ^ "Croatia". The World Factbook. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  175. ^ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  176. ^ Jelovac, Milan (23 January 2001). "Vojni rok u Hrvatskoj kraći, nego drugdje u Europi i NATO-u". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  177. ^ "Hrvatska u najviše misija UN-a". NACIONAL.HR (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  178. ^ "GODIŠNJE IZVJEŠĆE O OBRANI za 2019. – podnositeljica: Vlada Republike Hrvatske". Hrvatski sabor (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  179. ^ "Godišnje izvješće o obrani za 2019" (in Croatian). Vlada Republike Hrvatske. 3 September 2020. p. 95.
  180. ^ "Izvješće obavijeno tajnom: Prošla je godina za hrvatsku vojnu industriju bila najlošija u proteklih pet, pa i više" (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  181. ^ Franičević, Mile (6 March 2011). "Hrvatski izvoz oružja i opreme lani narastao na 650 milijuna kuna". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  182. ^ Mandić, Oleg (1952). "O nekim pitanjima društvenog uređenja Hrvatske u srednjem vijeku" [On some issues of social system of Croatia in the Middle Ages] (PDF). Historijski Zbornik (in Croatian). Školska knjiga. 5 (1–2): 131–138. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  183. ^ Frucht 2005, p. 429.
  184. ^ Biondich 2000, p. 11.
  185. ^ "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 30 December 1992. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  186. ^ "Zakon o područjima županija, gradova i općina u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Territories of Counties, Cities and Municipalities of the Republic of Croatia Act]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 28 July 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  187. ^ "Nacionalno izviješće Hrvatska" [Croatia National Report] (PDF) (in Croatian). Council of Europe. January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  188. ^ "Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  189. ^ "Croatia | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  190. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  191. ^ "GDP per capita in PPS". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  192. ^ "Real GDP growth rate". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  193. ^ "Republic of Croatia – Croatian Bureau of Statistics". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  194. ^ "Croatia Unemployment Rate". The Global Economy.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  195. ^ a b c d "Europe :: Croatia – The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 22 September 2021.
  196. ^ "ROBNA RAZMJENA REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE S INOZEMSTVOM u 2018.KONAČNI PODACI/FOREIGN TRADE IN GOODS OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA, 2018 FINAL DATA". www.dzs.hr.
  197. ^ "Background Note: Croatia". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
  198. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive Summary p. 12" (PDF). transparency.org. Transparency International. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  199. ^ "Novac – Javni dug dosegnuo rekord: njegov udjel u BDP-u narastao na 85,3 posto". novac.jutarnji.hr (in Croatian). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  200. ^ "Hrvatsku posjetilo 6,8 milijuna gostiju, otkrivamo kolika će biti zarada od turizma". www.vecernji.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  201. ^ Pili, Tomislav; Verković, Davor (1 October 2011). "Iako čini gotovo petinu BDP-a, i dalje niskoprofitabilna grana domaće privrede" [Even though it comprises nearly a fifth of the GDP, it is still a low-profit branch of the national economy]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  202. ^ 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 412.
  203. ^ 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 415.
  204. ^ "DOLASCI i NOĆENJA TURISTA u 2019". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 28 February 2020.
  205. ^ "History of Opatija". Opatija Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  206. ^ "Activities and attractions". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  207. ^ "Croatia". Foundation for Environmental Education. Archived from the original on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  208. ^ "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex, May 2019". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. 17 (2): 1–40. 22 May 2019. doi:10.18111/wtobarometereng.2019.17.1.2. ISSN 1728-9246. S2CID 243009713.
  209. ^ "Croatian highlights, Croatia". Euro-poi.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  210. ^ a b c Tanja Poletan Jugović (11 April 2006). "The integration of the Republic of Croatia into the Pan-European transport corridor network". Pomorstvo. University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies. 20 (1): 49–65. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  211. ^ "Odluka o izmjenama i dopunama odluke o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on amendments and additions to the Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 30 January 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  212. ^ "Mreža autocesta – HUKA". www.huka.hr. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  213. ^ "Traffic counting on the roadways of Croatia in 2009 – digest" (PDF). Hrvatske ceste. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  214. ^ "EuroTest". Eurotestmobility.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  215. ^ "Brinje Tunnel Best European Tunnel". Javno.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  216. ^ 2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 346.
  217. ^ Pili, Tomislav (10 May 2011). "Skuplje korištenje pruga uništava HŽ" [More Expensive Railway Fees Ruin Croatian Railways]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  218. ^ "Air transport". Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  219. ^ Meštrović, Damjan (2018). Utjecaj izgradnje novog terminala na poslovanje Zračne luke Franjo Tuđman (Thesis) (in Croatian).
  220. ^ "FAA Raises Safety Rating for Croatia". Federal Aviation Administration. 26 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  221. ^ "Riječka luka –jadranski "prolaz" prema Europi" [The Port of Rijeka – Adriatic "gateway" to Europe] (in Croatian). World Bank. 3 March 2006. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  222. ^ "Luke" [Ports] (in Croatian). Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  223. ^ "Plovidbeni red za 2011. godinu" [Sailing Schedule for Year 2011] (in Croatian). Agencija za obalni linijski pomorski promet. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  224. ^ "Plovni putovi" [Navigable routes] (in Croatian). Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  225. ^ "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  226. ^ "Transportni sustav" [Transport system] (in Croatian). Plinacro. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  227. ^ "Croatia, Slovenia's nuclear plant safe: Croatian president". EU Business. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  228. ^ World Population Prospects 2019, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  229. ^ "Croatia in Figures" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  230. ^ Roser, Max (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries", Our World in Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 7 August 2018, retrieved 6 May 2019
  231. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The World FactBook – Croatia", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018
  232. ^ Mrđen, Snježana; Friganović, Mladen (June 1998). "The demographic situation in Croatia". Geoadria. Hrvatsko geografsko društvo – Zadar. 3 (1): 29–56. doi:10.15291/geoadria.45. ISSN 1331-2294. PMID 12294962. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  233. ^ "Vlada uslišila molbe: Povećane kvote dozvola za strane radnike". www.vecernji.hr.
  234. ^ Vidak, Nick (2008). "The Policy of Immigration in Croatia". Politička Misao: Croatian Political Science Review. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science. 35 (5): 57–75. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  235. ^ "Croatia's population has dropped 10% in a decade, reveals census". Euronews. 14 January 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  236. ^ "Summary of judgement for Milan Martić". United Nations. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
  237. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General Submitted Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1009 (1995)". United Nations Security Council. 23 August 1995. p. 3.
  238. ^ "Domovinski rat – Hrvatska enciklopedija". Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  239. ^ "Savez udruga Hrvata iz BiH izabrao novo čelništvo" [Union of associations of Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats elects new leadership] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 28 June 2003. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  240. ^ "29 06 2010 – Benkovac" (in Croatian). Office of the President of Croatia. 29 June 2010. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  241. ^ "International Migration and Development". esa.un.org.
  242. ^ "U Hrvatskoj je loše i preporučam svakom mladom čovjeku da ode u Njemačku". Dnevnik.hr.
  243. ^ "Population in major towns and municipalities, 2018 census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  244. ^ Croatian Constitution, Article 41
  245. ^ "Population by Religion, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  246. ^ "Special Eurobarometer 341, "Biotechnology"" (PDF). p. 209.
  247. ^ "Gallup Global Reports". Gallup. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  248. ^ "Final Topline" (PDF). Pew. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  249. ^ "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" [Constitution of the Republic of Croatia]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 9 July 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  250. ^ Veljković, Sandra; Stojan de Prato (5 November 2011). "Hrvatski postaje 24. službeni jezik Europske unije" [Croatian Becomes the 24th Official Language of the European Union]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  251. ^ "Izviješće o provođenju ustavnog zakona o pravima nacionalnih manjina i utrošku sredstava osiguranih u državnom proračunu Republike Hrvatske za 2007. godinu za potrebe nacionalnih manjina" [Report on Implementation of Constitutional Act on National Minority Rights and Expenditure of Funds Appropriated by the 2007 State Budget for Use by the National Minorities] (in Croatian). Sabor. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  252. ^ a b Franceschini, Rita (2014). "Italy and the Italian-Speaking Regions". In Fäcke, Christiane (ed.). Manual of Language Acquisition. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. p. 546. ISBN 9783110394146.
  253. ^ "Organska podloga hrvatskog jezika" [The Organic Base of Croatian] (in Croatian). Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  254. ^ Tafra, Branka (February 2007). "Značenje narodnoga preporoda za hrvatski jezik" [Significance of the National Revival for Croatian]. Croatica et Slavica Iadertina (in Croatian). 2: 43–55. ISSN 1845-6839. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  255. ^ Greenberg, Robert D. (2004). Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration (1st ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191514555.
  256. ^ Kapović, Mate (2009). "Položaj hrvatskoga jezika u svijetu danas" [The Position of Croatian in the World Today]. Kolo (in Croatian). Matica hrvatska (1–2). ISSN 1331-0992. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  257. ^ Turk, Marija (1996). "JEZIČNI PURIZAM". FLUMINENSIA: Časopis za filološka istraživanja (in Croatian). 8 (1–2): 63–79. ISSN 0353-4642.
  258. ^ "Istraživanje: Tri posto visokoobrazovanih ne zna niti jedan strani jezik, Hrvati uglavnom znaju engleski" [Survey: Three per cent of higher educated people can not speak any foreign languages, Croats mostly speak English] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  259. ^ "Europeans and their languages – European commission special barometer FEB2006" (PDF). European Commission. February 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
  260. ^ "Croatia". European Union. European Commission. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  261. ^ "Population aged 10 and over by sex and illiterates by age, 2011 census". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  262. ^ "Statističke informacije 2020" (PDF). Državni zavod za statistiku. 2019. p. 33.
  263. ^ 2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 488. sfn error: no target: CITEREF2017_Statistical_Yearbook_of_the_Republic_of_Croatia (help)
  264. ^ a b "Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2016 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Statistički Ljetopis Republike Hrvatske. 8 December 2016. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  265. ^ "Državna matura" (in Croatian). Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Croatia). Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  266. ^ a b "Institut za razvoj obrazovanja – Pregled institucija". Iro.hr. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  267. ^ "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). University of Zadar. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  268. ^ "University of Zagreb 1699–2005". University of Zagreb. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  269. ^ "60. rođendan Instituta Ruđer Bošković: Svijetu je dao ciklotron, spojeve i novi katalizator" [The 60th Anniversary of the Ruđer Bošković Institute: It Presented the World with a Cyclotron, Compounds and a New Catalyst]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 9 June 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  270. ^ "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  271. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2021". World Intellectual Property Organization. United Nations. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  272. ^ "Infrastructure for an era of crisis". European Investment Bank. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  273. ^ "E-Schools in Croatia". JASPERS.
  274. ^ Zrinščak, Siniša (February 2003). "Socijalna politika u kontekstu korjenite društvene transformacije postkomunističkih zemalja" [Social Policy in the Context of Thorough Social Transformation of Post-Communist Countries]. Revija za socijalnu politiku (in Croatian). 10 (2): 135–159. doi:10.3935/rsp.v10i2.124. ISSN 1330-2965. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  275. ^ 2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, p. 549. sfn error: no target: CITEREF2017_Statistical_Yearbook_of_the_Republic_of_Croatia (help)
  276. ^ Matković, Marijana (27 September 2011). "Ulaskom u EU Hrvatska će imati najveću potrošnju za zdravstvo" [After the EU accession Croatia will have the maximum healthcare spending]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  277. ^ "Puni džepovi: europski smo rekorderi potrošnje, imamo najskuplju vlast u cijeloj Europskoj uniji!". 19 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  278. ^ "Croatia Demographics 2020 (Population, Age, Sex, Trends) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  279. ^ "Statistički ljetopis 2018" (PDF). Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2018. p. 118.
  280. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (23 May 2013). "Smoking". Our World in Data.
  281. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (11 August 2017). "Obesity". Our World in Data.
  282. ^ "Historic City of Trogir". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  283. ^ "Culture and History". Croatian National Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  284. ^ "Djelokrug" [Scope of authority] (in Croatian). Ministry of Culture (Croatia). Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  285. ^ "Browse the Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Register of good safeguarding practices – intangible heritage". ich.unesco.org. UNESCO – Culture Sector.
  286. ^ Nash, Eric P. (30 July 1995). "STYLE; Dressed to Kill". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  287. ^ Huzjan, Vladimir (July 2008). "Pokušaj otkrivanja nastanka i razvoja kravate kao riječi i odjevnoga predmeta" [The origin and development of the tie (kravata) as a word and as a garment]. Povijesni Prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 34 (34): 103–120. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  288. ^ 2018 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, pp. 512–513. sfn error: no target: CITEREF2018_Statistical_Yearbook_of_the_Republic_of_Croatia (help)
  289. ^ 2017 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia, pp. 520–521. sfn error: no target: CITEREF2017_Statistical_Yearbook_of_the_Republic_of_Croatia (help)
  290. ^ Piteša, Adriana (10 November 2010). "Interliber: Nobelovci se prodaju za 20, bestseleri za 50, remek-djela za 100 kuna" [Interliber: Nobel Laureates Sold for 20, Bestsellers for 50, Masterpieces for 100 Kuna]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  291. ^ Clissold, Stephen; Henry Clifford Darby (1968). A short history of Yugoslavia from early times to 1966. CUP Archive. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0-521-09531-0. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  292. ^ MacGregor, Sandra (17 June 2013). "Varaždin: Croatia's 'little Vienna'". Telegraph Media Group. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  293. ^ "Najljepši gradovi Sjeverne Hrvatske – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin" [The Most Beautiful Cities of the Northern Croatia – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 14 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  294. ^ Darja Radović Mahečić (2006). "Sekvenca secesije – arhitekt Lav Kalda" [Sequence of the Art Nouveau – Architect Lav Kalda] (PDF). Radovi Instituta Za Povijest Umjetnosti (in Croatian). Institute of Art History (Croatia). 30: 241–264. ISSN 0350-3437. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  295. ^ a b "Croatian Art History – Overview of Prehistory". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  296. ^ "Church of Saint Donat". Zadar Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  297. ^ Nujić, Pavao (September 2011). "Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Rođeni Osječanin" [Josip Juraj Strossmayer – Native of Osijek]. Essehist (in Croatian). University of Osijek – Faculty of Philosophy. 2: 70–73. ISSN 1847-6236. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  298. ^ a b Hintz, Martin (2004). Croatia: Enchantment of the World. Scholastic. pp. 105–107. ISBN 0-516-24253-9.
  299. ^ "The Baška tablet". Island of Krk Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  300. ^ "Hrvatska književnost u 270.000 redaka" [Croatian Literature in 270,000 Lines] (in Croatian). Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography. 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  301. ^ Kaplan, Robert D. (18 April 1993). "A Reader's Guide to the Balkans". The New York Times.
  302. ^ Benfield, Richard W. (2003). "Croatia". In Quick, Amanda C. (ed.). World Press Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 (2 ed.). Detroit: Gale. ISBN 0-7876-5583-X. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  303. ^ "Press Freedom Index 2019". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  304. ^ "Croatia". freedomhouse.org. 28 January 2019. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  305. ^ "About Hina". HINA. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  306. ^ "Popis programa DTV | OIV digitalni signali i mreže". oiv.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  307. ^ "Popis programa digitalne televizije" [List of Digital Television Programmes] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  308. ^ "HRT broadcasting via satellite". Croatian Radiotelevision. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  309. ^ "Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2018 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Statistički Ljetopis Republike Hrvatske. 2 November 2018. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  310. ^ v.k. (11 October 2020). "Radio stanice u Zagrebu i Zagrebačkoj županiji". ZGportal Zagreb (in Croatian). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  311. ^ Babić, Sandra (15 January 2007). "Prva Internet televizija u Hrvatskoj" [The First Internet Television in Croatia] (in Croatian). Lider. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  312. ^ Arslani, Merita (6 November 2010). "Već je 450 tisuća Hrvata prešlo na kabelsku i gleda 200 TV programa" [450 thousand Croats already switched to cable, watching 200 TV channels]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  313. ^ Tomorad, Darko (July 2002). "Marina Mučalo: Radio in Croatia, book review". Politička Misao. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences. 38 (5): 150–152. ISSN 0032-3241.
  314. ^ "Print Products". Europapress Holding. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  315. ^ "Daily papers". Styria Media Group. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  316. ^ Vozab, Dina (December 2014). "Tisak u krizi: analiza trendova u Hrvatskoj od 2008. do 2013". Medijske Studije (in Croatian). 5 (10): 141. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  317. ^ "AZTN: Prodaja dnevnih i tjednih novina nastavlja padati". tportal.hr. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  318. ^ Piteša, Adriana (12 September 2006). "Ministarstvo financira rekordan broj filmova" [Ministry [of Culture] funding a record number of films]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  319. ^ "Potpora hrvatskim filmovima i koprodukcijama" [Supporting Croatian Films and Co-Productions] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  320. ^ Smith, Ian Hayden (2012). International Film Guide 2012. p. 94. ISBN 978-1908215017.
  321. ^ Jerbić, Vedran (12 July 2011). "Trierova trijumfalna apokalipsa" [Trier's Triumphant Apocalypse]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  322. ^ Trkulja, Božidar (29 May 2011). ""Surogat" napunio pola stoljeća" ["Ersatz" celebrates half a century]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  323. ^ "Film Producer Branko Lustig Becomes Honorary Citizen of Zagreb". Total Croatia News. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  324. ^ a b "Gastronomy and enology". Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  325. ^ Skenderović, Robert (2002). "Kako je pivo došlo u Hrvatsku". Hrvatska revija (in Croatian). Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  326. ^ "Beer Consumption by Country 2020". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  327. ^ Perman, Biserka (May 2011). "Is sports system fair?". Jahr: Europski Časopis za bioetiku. University of Rijeka. 2 (3): 159–171. ISSN 1847-6376. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  328. ^ "About Croatian Football Federation". Croatian Football Federation. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  329. ^ "Evo vam Lige 16: Na utakmicama HNL-a prosječno 1911" [There's league 16: Average attendance at HNL matches stands at 1911] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  330. ^ "Olympic medalists". Croatian Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  331. ^ "Croatian Olympic Committee". hoo.hr. Croatian Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.

General and cited references

  • Adkins, Roy; Adkins, Lesley (2008). The War for All the Oceans. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311392-8. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Agičić, Damir; Feletar, Dragutin; Filipčić, Anita; Jelić, Tomislav; Stiperski, Zoran (2000). Povijest i zemljopis Hrvatske: priručnik za hrvatske manjinske škole [History and Geography of Croatia: Minority School Manual] (in Croatian). ISBN 978-953-6235-40-7. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Banac, Ivo (1984). The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Allen, Beverly (1996). Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0816628186.
  • Biondich, Mark (2000). Stjepan Radić, the Croat Peasant Party, and the politics of mass mobilization, 1904–1928. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8294-7. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Cresswell, Peterjon (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  • Fisher, Sharon (2006). Political change in post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: from nationalist to Europeanist. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-7286-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Font, Márta (July 2005). "Ugarsko Kraljevstvo i Hrvatska u srednjem vijeku" [Hungarian Kingdom and Croatia in the Middle Ages]. Povijesni Prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 28 (28): 7–22. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  • Forbrig, Joerg; Demeš, Pavol (2007). Reclaiming democracy: civil society and electoral change in central and eastern Europe. The German Marshall Fund of the United States. ISBN 978-80-969639-0-4. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Geiger, Vladimir (2012). "Human losses of Croats in World War II and the immediate post-war period caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partizans (People's Liberation Army and the partizan detachment of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Yugoslav Communist authoritities. Numerical indicators". Review of Croatian History. VIII (1): 77–121.
  • Goldstein, Ivo (1999). Croatia: A History. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 9781850655251.
  • Kasapović, Mirjana, ed. (2001). Hrvatska Politika 1990–2000 [Croatian Politics 1990–2000] (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science. ISBN 978-953-6457-08-3. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  • Kočović, Bogoljub (1985). Žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji [World War II Victims in Yugoslavia] (in Serbian). Naše delo.
  • Lane, Frederic Chapin (1973). Venice, a Maritime Republic. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-1460-0. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Midlarsky, Manus I. (20 October 2005). The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century (First ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-44539-9. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  • Magaš, Branka (2007). Croatia Through History: The Making of a European State. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-775-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  • Mužić, Ivan (2007). Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća [Croatian Ninth Century History] (PDF) (in Croatian). Naklada Bošković. ISBN 978-953-263-034-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford Univ: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2.
  • Žerjavić, Vladimir (1993). "Doseljavanja i iseljavanja s područja Istre, Rijeke i Zadra u razdoblju 1910–1971" [Immigration and emigration from the Istria, Rijeka and Zadar areas in the period from 1910 to 1971]. Journal for General Social Issues (in Croatian). Zagreb, Croatia. 2 (4-5(6–7)): 631–653.
  • Žerjavić, Vladimir (1992). Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga [Obsession and Megalomania over Jasenovac and Bleiburg] (in Croatian). Globus. ISBN 86-343-0661-5.
  • "Statistički pokazatelji o provedenim izborima za zastupnike u Sabor Socijalističke Republike Hrvatske – Prilog" [Statistical Indicators on Performed Elections of Representatives in the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Croatia – Annex] (PDF) (in Croatian). Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian State Electoral Committee. 1990. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2015.
  • Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2013). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2013 [2013 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). Vol. 45. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. ISSN 1334-0638. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  • Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). Vol. 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015.

External links

Croatia at Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quotations from Wikiquote
  • Texts from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Travel information from Wikivoyage
  • Resources from Wikiversity
  • v
  • t
  • e
Croatia articles
History
Coat of arms of Croatia.svg
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
Culture
Symbols
  • Category
  • Portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Sovereign states
Europe orthographic Caucasus Urals boundary (with borders).svg
States with limited
recognition
Dependent
territories
Denmark
United Kingdom
Crown Dependencies
Special areas
of internal
sovereignty
Finland
Norway
United Kingdom
  • 1 Spans the conventional boundary between Europe and another continent.
  • 2 Considered European for cultural, political and historical reasons but is geographically in Western Asia.
  • 3 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf.
  • Category
  • Europe portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Geographically fully located
Balkan topo en.jpg
Significantly located
Mostly outside of the peninsula
See also
1 Declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008 and is recognised by 112 United Nations member states, while 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition..
  • v
  • t
  • e
Flag of Europe.svg
European Union main map.svg
  • v
  • t
  • e
Institutions
Members
Observers
Former members
  • v
  • t
  • e
Members
Partners for
Cooperation
Bodies and posts
  • v
  • t
  • e
Members
Members
Flag of the Francophonie
National/regional members
Associate members
Observers
Suspended members
Organization
Culture
  • Category
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
General
  • ISNI
    • 1
  • VIAF
    • 1
  • WorldCat
National libraries
  • Chile
  • Spain
  • France (data)
    • 2 (data)
    • 3 (data)
  • Germany
  • Israel
  • United States
  • Japan
  • Czech Republic
  • Croatia
  • Sweden
Scientific databases
  • CiNii (Japan)
Other
  • Faceted Application of Subject Terminology
  • Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
  • MusicBrainz area
  • National Archives (US)
  • RERO (Switzerland)
    • 1
  • SUDOC (France)
    • 1

frontpage hit counter