European Parliament constituency
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by the population of the member states of the European Union (EU). The European Electoral Act 2002 allows member states the choice to allocate electoral subdivisions or constituencies (French: Circonscriptions électorales, German: Wahlkreise, Italian: Circoscrizioni elettorali, Swedish: Valkretsar) for the European Parliament elections in several different ways.
Most EU countries operate a single national constituency which elects MEPs for the whole country. Belgium and Ireland are each subdivided into constituencies, with electoral results calculated separately in each constituency. Germany, Italy and Poland are each subdivided into electoral districts, with the number of representatives determined at the national level after each election in proportion to the votes cast in each district.
In Germany, political parties are entitled to present lists of candidates either at Länder or national level.
France was subdivided into 8 constituencies from 2004 until 2019. Denmark had a separate constituency for Greenland until 1985, when the autonomous territory withdrew from the EEC (later expanded to become the EU).
Currently, all constituencies use various forms of proportional representation (PR), except the single-seat German-speaking electoral college in Belgium, which uses first-past-the-post. The parliament as a whole is not PR, because seats are apportioned between member states by degressive proportionality.
List of constituencies
|Constituency||Member State||Area/Community||Seats||Seats throughout the country||Population, 2012 (thousands)||Area (km2)|
|At election||Current||Current||Total||Per current seat||Total||Per current seat|
|Dutch-speaking electoral college||Belgium||Flemish Community||12||12||21||6,389||532||13,521||1,127|
|French-speaking electoral college||French Community of Belgium||8||8||4,663||583||16,152||2,019|
|German-speaking electoral college||German-speaking Community of Belgium||1||1||77||77||854||854|
|Czech Republic||Czech Republic||(Full country)||21||21||21||10,511||501||78,866||3,756|
|Germany||Germany||Full country, with the option for parties to opt for separate state lists in the 16 Bundesländer||96||96||96||81,932||853||357,162||3,720|
|Dublin||Ireland||Counties Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin; and the city of Dublin||3||4||15||1,271||318||921||230|
|Midlands–North-West||Counties Cavan, Donegal, Galway, Kildare, Leitrim, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Roscommon, Sligo and Westmeath; and the city of Galway||4||4||1,635||409||37,282||9,321|
|South||Counties Carlow, Clare, Cork, Kilkenny, Kerry, Laois, Limerick, Offaly, Tipperary, Waterford, Wexford and Wicklow; and the cities of Cork, Limerick and Waterford||4||5||1,675||335||31,935||6,387|
|North-West||Italy||Aosta Valley, Liguria, Lombardy, Piedmont||20||20||76||15,807||790||57,928||2,896|
|North-East||Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Veneto||14||15||11,482||765||62,327||4,155|
|Central||Latium, Marche, Tuscany, Umbria||14||15||11,637||776||58,084||3,872|
|Southern||Abruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise||17||18||13,975||776||73,800||4,100|
|Podlaskie and Warmian-Masurian||Podlaskie Voivodeship and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship||3||3||2,651||884||44,360||14,787|
|Warsaw||City of Warsaw and part of the Masovian Voivodeship (powiats: Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Legionowo, Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Otwock, Piaseczno, Pruszków, Warsaw West and Wołomin)||6||6||2,795||466||11,205||1,868|
|Masovian||The remaining part of the Masovian Voivodeship (powiats: Ciechanów, Gostyń, Mława, Płock, Płońsk, Przasnysz, Sierpc, Sochaczew, Żuromin, Żyrardów, Białobrzegi, Grójec, Kozienice, Lipsko, Przysucha, Radom, Szydłowiec, Zwoleń, Garwolin, Łosice, Maków, Mińsk, Ostrołęka, Ostrów Mazowiecka, Pułtusk, Siedlce, Sokołów, Węgrów, Wyszków and the cities of Płock, Radom, Ostrołęka and Siedlce)||3||3||2,499||833||24,353||8,118|
|Greater Poland||Greater Poland Voivodeship||5||5||3,350||670||15,183||3,037|
|Lesser Poland and Świętokrzyskie||Lesser Poland Voivodeship and Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship||5||6||4,735||789||41,537||6,923|
|Lower Silesian and Opole||Lower Silesian Voivodeship and Opole Voivodeship||4||4||3,928||982||29,359||7,340|
|Lubusz and West Pomeranian||Lubusz Voivodeship and West Pomeranian Voivodeship||4||4||2,745||686||36,880||9,220|
European Parliament constituencies in Belgium
European Parliament constituencies in Italy
Former regional constituencies
Greenland (European Parliament constituency)
Proposed pan-European constituency
On May 3, 2022, the European Parliament passed a bill to reform current law regarding elections to the European Parliament. Among the proposed reforms is the creation of a 28-member pan-Union constituency elected by party-list proportional representation on a list separate from elections for regional constituencies. The bill was passed 323 votes to 262, and awaits amendment by the European Council.
- ^ a b c d Oelbermann, Kai-Friederike; Palomares, Antonio; Pukelsheim, Friedrich (2010). "The 2009 European Parliament Elections: From Votes to Seats in 27 Ways" (PDF). European Electoral Studies. 5 (1): 148–182. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2013.
- ^ Eurostat (14 March 2014). "Average annual population (1000) by NUTS 2 region". Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- ^ Eurostat (19 May 2014). "Total area and land area by NUTS 2 region". Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- ^ Kurmayer, Nikolaus J. (3 May 2022). "European Parliament agrees position on EU election law overhaul". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
- Fact Sheets on the European Union
- European Parliament election, 2004 (Belgium) – electoral law
- European Parliament election, 2004 (Finland) – electoral law
- European Parliament election, 2004 (France) – electoral law
- European Parliament election, 2004 (Ireland) – electoral law
- European Parliament election, 2004 (Poland) – electoral law
- European Parliament election, 2004 (United Kingdom) – electoral law