European Union–NATO relations

Bilateral relations
European Union–NATO relations
Map indicating locations of European Union and NATO

European Union 22

NATO

The European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) are two main treaty-based Western organisations for cooperation between member states, both headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Their natures are different and they operate in different spheres: NATO is a purely intergovernmental organisation functioning as a military alliance whose primary task[citation needed] is to implement article 5 in the North Atlantic Treaty on collective territorial defence. The EU on the other hand is a partly supranational and partly intergovernmental sui generis entity akin to a confederation[1][2] that entails wider economic and political integration. Unlike NATO, the EU pursues a foreign policy in its own right - based on consensus, and member states have equipped it with tools in the field of defence and crisis management; the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) structure.

The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. The EU and NATO have respectively 27 and 30 member states, of which 21 are members of both. Another four NATO members are EU applicants — Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Turkey — and another one, the United Kingdom, is a former EU member. Two others — Iceland and Norway — have opted to remain outside of the EU, but do participate in the EU's single market as part of their European Economic Area (EEA) membership. Two EU member states — Sweden and Finland — have applied to NATO and are being ratified as members, leaving four non-NATO states in the EU: Austria, Ireland, Cyprus and Malta. Several EU and NATO member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact.[3]

The EU has its own mutual defence clause in Articles 42(7) and 222 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. The CSDP command and control structure is however much smaller than the NATO Command Structure (NCS), and the extent to which the CSDP should evolve to form a full defence arm for the EU that is able to implement the EU mutual defence clause in its own right is a point of contention, and the United Kingdom (UK) has objected to this. At the UK's insistence in the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Lisbon, Article 42.2 of TEU also specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.

The 2002 Berlin Plus agreement and 2018 Joint Declaration[4] provide for cooperation between the EU and NATO, including that that NCS resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions.

History

2
3
4
Emblems of former and present European and trans-Atlantic command and control structures: Western Union Defence Organisation (WUDO, l., 1948-1952), its de facto successor: NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE, m., 1952-present) and the EU's Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC, r., 2017-present).
2
3
4
Premises of former and present European and trans-Atlantic command and control structures: WUDO (l.) in Fontainebleau, France, its de facto successor: NATO's SHAPE (m.) in Mons, Belgium, and the EU's MPCC (r.) in Brussels, Belgium.

1948-1951: Common origins, where NATO cannibalises intra-European initiatives

The Western Union, established to implement the 1948 Treaty of Brussels signed by France, the Netherlands, the Benelux countries and the United Kingdom, represents a precursor to both NATO and the EU's defence arm, the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). WUDO's organisational chart as of November 1948, in which solid and dashed lines indicate control and liaison lines, respectively:[5]

Consultative Council
(foreign or prime ministers)
Permanent Commission (4 ambassadors in London
plus Foreign Office representative)
Defence Committee (defence ministers)
Military Supply Board
Chiefs of Staff Committee (WUCOS)
Finance Committee
UN General Assembly Special CommitteeSecurity CommitteeMilitary Committee and Combined Staff of WUCOSCommanders-in-Chief Committee and its Chairman
C-in-C Western Europe Land ForcesC-in-C Western Europe (Tactical) Air ForceFlag Officer Western Europe


Since the end of World War II, sovereign European countries have entered into treaties and thereby co-operated and harmonised policies (or pooled sovereignty) in an increasing number of areas, in the European integration project or the construction of Europe (French: la construction européenne). The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. The EU inherited many of its present responsibilities from the European Communities (EC), which were founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration.

Legend:
  S: signing
  F: entry into force
  T: termination
  E: expiry
    de facto supersession
  Rel. w/ EC/EU framework:
   de facto inside
   outside
                  Flag of Europe.svg European Union (EU) [Cont.]  
Flag of Europe.svg European Communities (EC) (Pillar I)
European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) [Cont.]      
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 6 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 9 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 10 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 12 Star Version.svg European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)  
(Distr. of competences)
    European Economic Community (EEC)    
            Schengen Rules European Community (EC)
'TREVI' Justice and Home Affairs (JHA, pillar II)  
  Flag of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.svg / Flag of NATO.svg North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) [Cont.] Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC, pillar II)
Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Anglo-French alliance
[Defence arm handed to NATO] European Political Co-operation (EPC)   Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP, pillar III)
Flag of the Western Union.svg Western Union (WU) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg / Flag of the Western European Union.svg Western European Union (WEU) [Tasks defined following the WEU's 1984 reactivation handed to the EU]
     
[Social, cultural tasks handed to CoE] [Cont.]                
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    Flag of Europe.svg Council of Europe (CoE)
Dunkirk Treaty[a]
S: 4 March 1947
F: 8 September 1947
E: 8 September 1997
Brussels Treaty[a]
S: 17 March 1948
F: 25 August 1948
T: 30 June 2011
London and Washington treaties[a]
S: 5 May/4 April 1949
F: 3 August/24 August 1949
Paris treaties: ECSC and EDC[b]
S: 18 April 1951/27 May 1952
F: 23 July 1952/—
E: 23 July 2002/—
Protocol Modifying and
Completing the Brussels Treaty
[a]
S: 23 October 1954
F: 6 May 1955
Rome treaties: EEC and EAEC
S: 25 March 1957
F: 1 January 1958
WEU-CoE agreement[a]
S: 21 October 1959
F: 1 January 1960
Brussels (Merger) Treaty[c]
S: 8 April 1965
F: 1 July 1967
Davignon report
S: 27 October 1970
Single European Act (SEA)
S: 17/28 February 1986
F: 1 July 1987
Schengen Treaty and Convention
S: 14 June 1985/19 June 1990
F: 26 March 1995
Maastricht Treaty[d][e]
S: 7 February 1992
F: 1 November 1993
Amsterdam Treaty
S: 2 October 1997
F: 1 May 1999
Nice Treaty
S: 26 February 2001
F: 1 February 2003
Lisbon Treaty[f]
S: 13 December 2007
F: 1 December 2009


  1. ^ a b c d e Although not EU treaties per se, these treaties affected the development of the EU defence arm, a main part of the CFSP. The Franco-British alliance established by the Dunkirk Treaty was de facto superseded by WU. The CFSP pillar was bolstered by some of the security structures that had been established within the remit of the 1955 Modified Brussels Treaty (MBT). The Brussels Treaty was terminated in 2011, consequently dissolving the WEU, as the mutual defence clause that the Lisbon Treaty provided for EU was considered to render the WEU superfluous. The EU thus de facto superseded the WEU.
  2. ^ Plans to establish a European Political Community (EPC) were shelved following the French failure to ratify the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community (EDC). The EPC would have combined the ECSC and the EDC.
  3. ^ The European Communities obtained common institutions and a shared legal personality (i.e. ability to e.g. sign treaties in their own right).
  4. ^ The treaties of Maastricht and Rome form the EU's legal basis, and are also referred to as the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. They are amended by secondary treaties.
  5. ^ Between the EU's founding in 1993 and consolidation in 2009, the union consisted of three pillars, the first of which were the European Communities. The other two pillars consisted of additional areas of cooperation that had been added to the EU's remit.
  6. ^ The consolidation meant that the EU inherited the European Communities' legal personality and that the pillar system was abolished, resulting in the EU framework as such covering all policy areas. Executive/legislative power in each area was instead determined by a distribution of competencies between EU institutions and member states. This distribution, as well as treaty provisions for policy areas in which unanimity is required and qualified majority voting is possible, reflects the depth of EU integration as well as the EU's partly supranational and partly intergovernmental nature.

1954: Failure to establish an autonomous European pillar in NATO

Had its founding treaty not failed to acquire ratification in the French Parliament in 1954, the European Defence Community would have entailed a pan-European military, divided into national components, and had a common budget, common arms, centralized military procurement, and institutions. The EDC would have had an integral link to NATO, forming an autonomous European pillar in the Atlantic alliance.

Diagram showing the functioning of the institutions provided for by the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community (EDC), the placing of Member States' armed forces (European Defence Forces) at the disposal of the Community, and the link between the EDC and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).

1996-present: Tensions and mutual interests as EU gains autonomous defence structures

Following the establishment of the ESDI and the St. Malo declaration, US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright were among others who voiced concern that an independent European security pillar could undermine NATO, as she put forth the three famous D's:

Our [...] task is working together to develop [the ESDI] within [NATO], which the United States has strongly endorsed. We enthusiastically support any such measures that enhance European capabilities. The United States welcomes a more capable European partner, with modern, flexible military forces capable of putting out fires in Europe's own back yard and working with us through [NATO] to defend our common interests. The key to a successful initiative is to focus on practical military capabilities. Any initiative must avoid preempting [NATO] decision-making by de-linking ESDI from NATO, avoid duplicating existing efforts, and avoid discriminating against non-EU members. [...]

Eastern enlargement

Present cooperation

Change of command for the post of Supreme Commander Allied Forces Europe (SACEUR) at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), the main headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s Allied Command Operations (ACO). SHAPE’s main building also flies the EU flag, reflecting the Berlin Plus agreement.

The Berlin Plus agreement enables EU operations to be planned and conducted at the military strategic and operational level with recourse to assets and capabilities in the NATO Command Structure (NCS). In such an event, an Operational Headquarters (OHQ) would be set up within NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Mons, Belgium. SHAPE is the main headquarters of Allied Command Operations (ACO).

When the NCS provides the OHQ, the Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR) acts as Operation Commander (OpCdr).

The Berlin Plus agreement requires that the use of NATO assets by the EU is subject to a "right of first refusal", i.e. NATO must first decline to intervene in a given crisis,[7][8] and contingent on unanimous approval among NATO states, including those outside of the EU. For example, Turkish reservations about Operation Concordia using NATO assets delayed its deployment by more than five months.[9]

The European External Action Service's (EEAS) Military Staff (EUMS), situated in the Kortenberg building in Brussels, has a permanent NATO liaison team and runs a permanent EU cell at NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Mons.

Comparison

Command structures

The CSDP entails collective self-defence amongst member states. This responsibility is based on Article 42.7 of TEU, which states that this responsibility does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, referring to policies of neutrality. See Neutral country§European Union for discussion on this subject. According to the Article 42.7 "If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States." Article 42.2 furthermore specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.

The EU does not have a permanent military command structure similar to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Allied Command Operations (ACO), although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions under the Berlin Plus agreement. The Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC), established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent military OHQ. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund (EDF) marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects.

European Union

European Union–NATO relations is located in European Union
CPCO
CPCO
EinsFüKdoBw
EinsFüKdoBw
EL EU OHQ
EL EU OHQ
ITA-JFHQ
ITA-JFHQ
class=notpageimage|
Location of alternative OHQs for EU-led military operations: EU headquarters, NATO headquarters and national OHQs offered by member states are shown with red, blue and yellow marks, respectively

The EU command and control (C2) structure is directed by political bodies composed of member states' representatives, and generally requires unanimous decisions. As of April 2019:[10]

Liaison:       Advice and recommendations       Support and monitoring       Preparatory work     
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Political strategic level:[5]
ISSEUCO Pres. (EUCO)Chain of command
Coordination/support
SatCenCIVCOMHR/VP (FAC)
INTCENHR/VP (PMG)HR/VP (PSC)[6]Coat of arms of Europe.svg Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
CEUMC (EUMC)
CMPDCoat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
DGEUMS[3] (EUMS)
Military/civilian strategic level:
Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Dir MPCC[3] (MPCC)
JSCCCiv OpCdr CPCC[1]
Operational level:
MFCdr[4] (MFHQ)HoM[1]
Tactical level:
CC[2] LandCC[2] AirCC[2] MarOther CCs[2]
ForcesForcesForcesForces


1 In the event of a CSDP Civilian Mission also being in the field, the relations with the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) and its Civilian Operation Commander (Civ OpCdr), as well as the subordinate Head of Mission (HoM), are coordinated as shown.
2 Other Component Commanders (CCs) and service branches which may be established.
3 The MPCC is part of the EUMS and Dir MPCC is double-hatted as DGEUMS. Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), either a national OHQ offered by member states or the NATO Command Structure (NCS) would serve this purpose. In the latter instance, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR), rather than Dir MPCC, would serve as Operation Commander (OpCdr).
4 Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), the MFCdr would be known as a Force Commander (FCdr), and direct a Force Headquarters (FHQ) rather than a MFHQ. Whereas the MFHQ would act both on the operational and tactical level, the FHQ would act purely on the operational level.
5 The political strategic level is not part of the C2 structure per se, but represents the political bodies, with associated support facilities, that determine the missions' general direction. The Council determines the role of the High Representative (HR/VP), who serves as Vice-President of the European Commission, attends European Council meetings, chairs the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC) and may chair the Political and Security Committee (PSC) in times of crisis. The HR/VP proposes and implements CSDP decisions.
6 Same composition as Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) II, which also prepares for the CSDP-related work of the FAC.

NATO

class=notpageimage|
Locations of NATO's two strategic commands—Allied Command Transformation (ACT; yellow marks) and Allied Command Operations (ACO; red marks)—the latter of which has Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) as its headquarters. The subordinate centres of ACT and subordinate commands and joint force commands of ACO are also shown.
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The NATO Military Command Structure consists of two strategic commands, directed by the International Military Staff:[11]

The commands under SACEUR - Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, Allied Joint Force Command Naples and Joint Force Command Norfolk are Operational Level Commands, while Headquarters Allied Air Command, Headquarters Allied Maritime Command and Headquarters Allied Land Command are Tactical Level Commands.[12] SACEUR also has operational command of the Joint Support and Enabling Command.[13]

Liaison:       Provides advice and support to the NAC
Political strategic level:
North Atlantic Council
Secretary General of NATO
Brussels, BE
International Staff
Brussels, BE
Military strategic level:
Coat of arms of the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Chair of the NATO Military Committee

Brussels, BE
Coat of arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
SACEUR
(ACO, SHAPE)
Mons, BE
Emblem of Allied Command Transformation.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
SACT
(ACT, HQ SACT)
Norfolk, US
Operational level:
Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum JFCBS Brunssum, NLJoint Warfare Centre JWC Stavanger, NO
Allied Air Command AIRCOM Ramstein, DEJoint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre JALLC Lisbon, PT
Allied Maritime Command MARCOM Northwood, GBJoint Force Training Centre JFTC Bydgoszcz, PL
Allied Land Command LANDCOM İzmir, TR
NATO Communication and Information Systems Group CIS GP Mons, BE
Allied Joint Force Command Naples JFCNP Naples, IT
Joint Force Command Norfolk JFC-NF Norfolk, Virginia, US


Summits

EU-NATO Summits

  • 1st EU-NATO Summit: TBD in TBD

Membership

Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
  EU member only
  NATO member only
  member of both
The emblem of the Belgian Armed Forces depicts twelve stars and a compass rose, which symbolise the country's EU and NATO membership, respectively

The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct. The EU and NATO have respectively 27 and 30 member states, of which 21 states are members of both.

The six EU member states which are not members of NATO (Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Ireland, Malta and Sweden) held positions of neutrality during the Cold War, which they have since maintained. However, all but Cyprus are now members of NATO's Partnership for Peace. Cyprus is the only EU member state that is neither a full member of NATO nor participates in the Partnership for Peace. Any treaty concerning Cyprus' participation in NATO would likely be blocked by Turkey because of the Cyprus dispute.[14] The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine reignited debate surrounding NATO membership in several countries, with Sweden and Finland both applying for NATO membership.

Of the 30 NATO member states, 28 are European states. The 7 European states which are NATO members but not EU members includes four states that have applied for EU membership (Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Turkey), as well as the United Kingdom which is a former EU member. The two others—Iceland and Norway—have opted to remain outside of the EU, however participate in the EU's single market.

Several EU member states were formerly members of the NATO rival Warsaw Pact.

  Non-European countries
  Transcontinental countries
Comparison of the two main Euro-Atlantic defence organisations
   European Union
(in respect of its defence arm, the Common Security and Defence Policy)
 NATO
Mutual defence clause Article 42.7 of the consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union:

"If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States. [...]"

Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty:

"The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them [on their territory] shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. [...]"

  Political strategic organisation
Highest office High Representative (HR/VP) Secretary General
Principal decision-making body Foreign Affairs Council North Atlantic Council
Liaison body European External Action Service International Staff
Seat Kortenberg building (Brussels, Belgium) Coat of arms of the NATO Headquarters.png NATO headquarters (Brussels, Belgium)
  Military strategic organisation
Supreme commander Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg Director of the Military Planning and Conduct Capability Coat of arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.svg Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg Supreme Allied Commander Europe
Headquarters Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg Military Planning and Conduct Capability (Brussels, Belgium) Coat of arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.svg Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (Mons, Belgium)
Chair of chiefs of defence assembly Coat of arms of Europe.svg Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg Chairman of the European Union Military Committee Coat of arms of the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee.svg Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg Chair of the NATO Military Committee
Chiefs of defence assembly Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg European Union Military Committee Coat of arms of the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee.svg NATO Military Committee
Advisory body Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg European Union Military Staff Coat of arms of the International Military Staff.svg International Military Staff
  Membership Permanent Structured Cooperation Membership
European countries that participate in all possible arrangements
 Belgium Founder Founder Founder
 Bulgaria 2007 Founder 2004
 Croatia 2013 Founder 2009
 Czech Republic 2004 Founder 1999
 Denmark 1973 2022 Founder
 Estonia 2004 Founder 2004
 France Founder Founder Founder
 Germany Founder Founder 1955
 Greece 1981 Founder 1952
 Hungary 2004 Founder 1999
 Italy Founder Founder Founder
 Latvia 2004 Founder 2004
 Lithuania 2004 Founder 2004
 Luxembourg Founder Founder Founder
 Netherlands Founder Founder Founder
 Poland 2004 Founder 1999
 Portugal 1986 Founder Founder
 Romania 2007 Founder 2004
 Slovakia 2004 Founder 2004
 Slovenia 2004 Founder 2004
 Spain 1986 Founder 1982
European countries that presently do not participate in all possible arrangements
 Albania Candidate 2009
 Armenia  No Individual Partnership Action Plan
 Austria 1995 Founder Partnership for Peace
 Azerbaijan  No Individual Partnership Action Plan
 Belarus No Partnership for Peace
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Applicant Membership Action Plan
 Cyprus 2004 Founder No
 Finland 1995 Founder Accession protocol signed
 Georgia Applicant Intensified Dialogue
 Iceland No Founder
 Ireland 1973 Founder Partnership for Peace
 Kazakhstan  No Individual Partnership Action Plan
 Kosovo Potential candidate No
 Malta 2004 No Partnership for Peace
 Moldova Candidate Individual Partnership Action Plan
 Montenegro Candidate 2017
 North Macedonia Candidate 2020
 Norway Defence Agency agreement Founder
 Russia  No Partnership for Peace
 Serbia Candidate Individual Partnership Action Plan
  Switzerland Defence Agency agreement Partnership for Peace
 Sweden 1995 Founder Accession protocol signed
 Turkey  suspended 1952
 Ukraine Candidate Intensified Dialogue
 United Kingdom No Founder
Members of NATO located in North America, which as such are ineligible for European Union membership
 Canada Founder
 United States Founder
Members of Partnership for Peace located outside Europe, which as such are ineligible for accession to either organisation
 Kyrgyzstan Partnership for Peace
 Tajikistan Partnership for Peace
 Turkmenistan Partnership for Peace
 Uzbekistan Partnership for Peace

See also

References

  1. ^ Kiljunen, Kimmo (2004). The European Constitution in the Making. Centre for European Policy Studies. pp. 21–26. ISBN 978-92-9079-493-6.
  2. ^ Burgess, Michael (2000). Federalism and European union: The building of Europe, 1950–2000. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 0-415-22647-3. "Our theoretical analysis suggests that the EC/EU is neither a federation nor a confederation in the classical sense. But it does claim that the European political and economic elites have shaped and moulded the EC/EU into a new form of international organization, namely, a species of "new" confederation."
  3. ^ "Defence Data Portal". Default. Retrieved 2022-06-29.
  4. ^ President of the European Council; President of the European Commission; Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (10 July 2018). "Joint Declaration on EU-NATO Cooperation".
  5. ^ "Memorandum by the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1 to the Secretary of Defense (Forrestal)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  6. ^ "12/8/98 Albright Statement to the North Atlantic Council". 1997-2001.state.gov.
  7. ^ "EU Operations Centre".
  8. ^ Heritage Foundation report, March 24, 2008. [1]
  9. ^ Bram Boxhoorn, Broad Support for NATO in the Netherlands, 21-09-2005, "Article". Archived from the original on 2007-02-18. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
  10. ^ EU Command and Control, p. 13, Military Staff
  11. ^ "Command Structure" (PDF). NATO. Retrieved 19 October 2019. and "Military Command Structure". shape.nato.int. Supreme Head Allied Powers Europe. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  12. ^ "MILITARY COMMAND STRUCTURE". shape.nato.int. NATO. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  13. ^ Boeke, Sergei (13 January 2020). "Creating a secure and functional rear area : NATO's new JSEC Headquarters". nato.int. NATO. Retrieved 9 October 2020. JSEC is part of the NATO Force Structure and under the operational command of the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).
  14. ^ Dempsey, Judy (24 November 2010). "Between the European Union and NATO, Many Walls". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 March 2014.

External links

  • NATO article on EU relations
  • EU factsheets on NATO relations
  • EDC Treaty (unofficial translation) see pg 2
  • EDC information on European Navigation
  • NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION: A DEFENSIVE RELATIONSHIP
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